Journal of Alcoholism Drug Abuse & Substance Dependence Category: Medical Type: Original Article

Abuse Drug Addictive’s: Beginning and Causes of Drug among Different Gender in District Charsadda, Pakistan

Suliman Khan1*, Muhammad Ilyas2, Zou Xiaobo3, Subhan Ullah Khan2, Fazal Rahman2 and Muhammad Arif2
1 Department Of Biotechnology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan
2 Department Of Biotechnology, University Of Malakand, Pakistan
3 School Of Food And Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, China

*Corresponding Author(s):
Suliman Khan
Department Of Biotechnology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan
Email:sulimanbiotech31@gmail.com

Received Date: Jan 26, 2021
Accepted Date: Feb 02, 2021
Published Date: Feb 09, 2021

Abstract

Charsadda is one of the famous city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa having more than 100 school, 30 colleges, Bacha Khan University and largest Islamic centers for study. According to our result majority high educated people were ice addictive due to the bad society. The major purpose of the study to determine the ratio of drug abuse, beginning drugs types and addictive beginning age, genetically or non-genetically, gender (female, male and transgender) causes and factor effecting of drug in addictive’s in different level people in charsadda. For this study we were selected three different institutes and local area and conducted survey among 220 people. Majority labor and student was found abusing drugs. From this study we came across multiple factor which are the main drug abuse is 99% transgender which are causes Cure for physically illness, disease, or injury and bad society and fun sake and labor 50%causes Economic worries(debts payment or low income and hard working. According to our results 80 % of abuse drug addictive causes by friend. Ice and chars is the most common addiction in male and transgender compare to female.

Keywords

Abuse drug additives; Gender difference

Introduction

Drugs are chemicals which cause either physical or mental changes in body functioning. These chemicals may be natural, such as cocaine, semi-synthetic, such as heroin and ecstasy, or totally synthetic, such as methadone (An Garda., 1995). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that, about 50 crore people in the world are affected by the abuse of drugs) [1]. Addiction is defined as a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, occurring any time in the same 12-month period. It is manifested by tolerance, withdrawal and other symptoms. Approximately 15.9 million people inject drugs worldwide, with the largest numbers found in China, America and Russia [2]. Drug abuse is a prevalent problem among Pakistan’s youth, who account for 28% of the whole population of Pakistan According to the recent report by UNODC and Pakistan Bureau of Statistics in 2013, an estimated 6.45 million of the population in Pakistan use drugs on an annual basis with cannabis being the most commonly used drug. Among the youth population, nearly 25% are involved in some form of drug abuse. Among the youngest drug users, between the ages of 15 and 19 years, the most commonly used drug is cannabis [3]. 

According to the 5th and last national survey (National Survey on Drug Abuse - N.S.D.A) conducted in 1993 by the Pakistan Narcotic Control Board, there were nearly 3 million drug dependents in Pakistan with 51 % of them being heroin dependents [4]. Nowadays drug such is chars marijuana vert common in young generation. “This may be related to the fact that youth tends to seek adventure, excitement, new thrills and does not always realize the dangers inherent in trying out drugs."* Drugs are also used for relieving tension, pain and to forget about the frustrations, disappointments and bitter realities of the world [5]. The highest number of intravenous drug abusers among all provinces is in Punjab which includes a high ratio of polydrug abuse among addicts in Lahore using heroin and opium together [2]. Different internal and external environmental factors including an addict’s mindset, social influences like home environment, peer pressure and response to stress and stressors may also contribute to opiate addiction vulnerability. Multiple external/environmental factors with varying degree of contribution at individual level results in increased risk of opioid dependence development [6]. Psychoactive drugs affect the central nervous system and act by altering a person's feelings, thoughts and behavior. They act by directly affecting the brain or the Central Nervous System (CNS) leading to various complication and health and behavioral problems. Injuries due to accidents (such as car accidents), physical disabilities and diseases, and the effects of possible overdoses are among the health-related consequences of youth substance abuse [7]. As already mentioned, drugs act on the central nervous system (i.e., they affect the individual's neurological functioning). The physiological correlates and effects vary according to each substance; there are specific mechanisms that involve precise receptors for each substance type. In this section we present some common aspects to the physiological effects of drugs. When a substance enters the body it first affects the neuronal receptors, which are structures located within a neuron or in its membrane and are characterized by selective binding to a substance and the physiological effect that accompanies the union( Epidemiological studies of this sort have identified 11 psychosocial variables which regularly distinguish illicit drug abusers and no abusers: (1) disturbed family relations, (2) psychological distress or psychopathology, (3) low self-esteem, (4) low achievement motivation, (5) disregard for rules, (6) low religiosity, (7) high sensation seeking, (8) family's misuse of substances, (9) high use of drugs among peers, (10) early use of tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs, and (11) early problem behavior [8].This present study was conducted to identify beginning abuse drugs types of drugs, age gender, causes addiction ,factor effecting, general information and overcoming of this abuse drugs problem in district Charsadda kpk Pakistan.

Material and Methods

Study Design and Setting a matched case control design was used to assess thefactors associated with drug addiction in kpk district Charsadda Pakistan. The study was conducted in charsadda is the most old and famous capital of kpk. In the total population male 820,520 female795657. More than 96%of the drug business occurs mainly in many hidden "drug dens" which are seen in virtually all parts of the Charsadda city. By questionnaire, were five different drugs identified in all parts of the city. Two hundred and thirty five drug addictive’s (100 female, 100male and 35 transgender) from different local area and health care center were selected by questioner. Included different gender in this group. Data were collected from January to June2020, using a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. A group of four student, for data collection. The interviewers were three male for male addictive’s and one female for female addictive’s university graduates with at least three years of experience working with drug addicts in the community. Data were collected on various demographic, socioeconomic medical and non-medical variables, such as is age of the respondent, education measured as the highest class attended, total monthly household income and monthly expenses for drugs, causes of addictive, marital status, drugs begin, gender, offspring, education, occupation, age, effects of drug in health, convey a message from addictive to public and government.

Results and Discussion

Out of 100% the age of addictive’s are less than 18 year (20% male, 22 %female and 40% transgender) and the between 18 to 28 (40% male, 30 %female and 40% transgender)Out of the 235 questionnaires 100 female 100 male and 35 transgender. According to our results high educated (Master level) and high jobs people were addicted. The drug abuse more common compare to those transgender how is fun sake. Beginning drug abuse Ageless then 18 years more common in transgender compare to other people.  Instead or the unavailability of  drugs used 30% male 45 %female and 20 % transgender  medicinal drugs. More women than men became addicted immediately after the initiation of drug use and women, on the average, took an overall shorter time to become addicted than did men (Table 1). Further, when addicted for equivalent time periods, women’s habits are larger. Fifty-seven percent of the women, as compared with only 36% of the men in a, became addicted in less than 1 year after their first use of narcotics. More than twice as many women as men became addicted within the first year after initial heroin use. Thus, if they become addicted at all, women appear to plung rapidly into daily uses [9]. 

S.no

Description

Female

Male

Transgender

1

Ageless then 18 year

20%

22%

40%

2

18 to 28

40%

30%

35%

3

28 to 48

30%

32%

25%

 

 

 

 

 

1

Monthly income (pkr)

16000pkr

20000pkr

23000pkr

2

Monthly expenses for

 

Abuse drugs

10000pkr

14000pkr

15000pkr

1

beginning

Average Chars

Average Naswar and chars

Average chars

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1: show the income and outcome/month, beginning of abuse drug, age and gender.

Basic information about of drug abuse addictive’s 

According to our result chars is the most common beginning drugs in started by friend mostly in age less than 18 year. The main causes of drug addiction is   bad society during especially in wedding program in young age.  90% transgender using chars during dance sing in some other wedding program. Transgender adolescents have higher rates of illicit and prescription drug use when compared to non-transgender adolescents, according to a new study (google data). The unavailability or lacking abuse drug used medical drugs instead of abuse drug.Research also indicated that certain variables increase the risk of drug abuse. Younger people are more prone to drug abuse [10]. The most recent data report that an estimated 20.4 million people are currently using illicit drugs. Additionally, the number of people with substance dependence is 22.6 million in 2006.3 Adult men are more likely than adult women to be current illicit substance abusers (10.5% vs. 6.2%, except prescription medications), alcohol users (65.9% vs. 57.9%), and tobacco users (36.4% vs. 23.3%).3 However, men and women had similar rates of past month use of stimulants (0.5% for both), Ecstasy (0.2% for both), sedatives (0.1 and 0.2%, respectively Oxy Contin (0.1% for both), LSD (0.1 and less than 0.1%, respectively), and PCP (less than 0.1% for both). Among pregnant women aged 15 to 44 years, an estimated 11.8% reported current alcohol use, 2.9% reported binge drinking, and 0.7% reported heavy drinking. These rates were significantly lower than the rates for non pregnant women in the same age group (53.0%, 23.6%, and 5.4%, respectively) [11].

Causes of drug addiction 

We have identified different causes for drug abuse cases. The main cause of drug abuse are Cure for physically illness, disease, or injury which were included 30% male, 33 %female and 20.5 %transgender and the second cause are Escapism (lover failure broken home deathof someone as shock) and the third common is sexual reasons (long intercourse).While genetics, environmental and psychiatric causes of drug abuse are possible, it is likely that a combination of risk factors is truly the cause of drug abuse. If a person has a genetic predisposition to drug abuse, that likely indicates one of the parent abuse drugs.  There are several major reasons for individuals using drugs in an abusive fashion. These include (1) euphoria, (2) peer pressure, (3) boredom, (4) life-jolting experiences and pressures, and (5) learned behavior (Pastor et al., 1985). The counselor should initially endeavor to discover the reason or reasons for the abuse and treat accordingly with Scriptural solutions. This may create an unstable home life and possibly emotional or psychological problems. Together these can become the drug abuse cause Tables 2 & 3. 

S.no

Description

Male%

Female%

Transgender%

1

Drug beginning age lees then 18 year

20

22

50

2

Beginning  drugs(chars)

60

49

80

3

Started by friend

80

50

90

7

addictive’s  education

70

45

50

5

Drug addictive’s   job government or private

60

30

10

6

Married

60

50

6

7

offspring

30

25

3

8

Divorce

0

5

0

9

Mentally abnormal

30

20

5

10

Instead of drug used medicinal drugs

30

45

20

11

Driver

10

5

1

12

Ice

40

30

50

13

Heroine

15

40

10

14

Chars

45

30

40

15

Student

30

5

0

Table 2: Basic information about of abuse drug addictive’s. 

S.no

Causes

Male %

Female %

Transgender %

1

Cure for  physically illness, disease, or injury

30

33

20.5

2

For sexual reasons ( long intercourse)

5.1

8.3

14.0

3

Escapism ( lover failure broken home  death of someone as shock)

19.05

26.09

7.02

4

Economic worries(debts payment or low income )

3.09

3.5

8.4

5

For hard jobs (hard working)

5.2

5.6

0.5

6

As a substitute for some  other drugs

2.5

4.5

1.1

7

Bad society or bad company

25

12

27

8

For fun sake

5.08

0.23

14.03

9

Without any reasons

1.2

3.03

2.1

10

Not addicted

1.7

2.03

2.0

11

Celebrations

2.0

3.0

4.0

Table 3: Causes of Abuse Drug.

Conclusion

Abuse drug addictive’s like a COVID 19 (corona virus 2019) infection due to passage of time increased the concentration of abuse drug addictive’s from addictive’s friend and bad society. Our result concluded that abuse drug (ice and chars) more common in transgender compare to other drugs and otherpeople. Highly educated people were abuse drug addictive due to cause of bad society. The ageless then 20 is the most important age for every goals of life. Nowadays the most common addicted age is 18 to 28 as a parent or other guardant to control young generation from abuse relation or different culture or weeding program. Other causes of Cure for physically illness, disease, or injury and hard jobs. According to people of district charsadda this problem is more common and increasing. One way for overcoming of this problem hanging, of abuse drug dealer in bazar for saving of new generation future.

References

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Citation: Khan S, Ilyas M, Xiaobo Z, Khan S U, Rahman F, et al. (2021)  Abuse Drug Addictive’s: Beginning and Causes of Drug among Different Gender in District Charsadda, Pakistan. J Alcohol Drug Depend Subst Abus 7: 023.

Copyright: © 2021  Suliman Khan, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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