Journal of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation & Disabilities Category: Medical Type: Research Article
Acute Effects of Quick Short - Duration Massage On Vertical Jump; A Crossover Randomised Controlled Trial
- Koya Mine1*
- 1 International Centre For Allied Health Evidence, University Of South Australia, South Australia, Australia
*Corresponding Author:Koya Mine
International Centre For Allied Health Evidence, University Of South Australia, South Australia, Australia
Received Date: May 03, 2017 Accepted Date: May 26, 2017 Published Date: Jun 08, 2017
Long - duration preperformance manual massage can have detrimental effects on muscle strength and functional performance. The objective of this study was to examine acute effects of quick short - duration massage on vertical jump performance.
Fifteen young healthy male individuals (age 21.07 ± 0.25 years, body mass index 22.29 ± 2.39) were recruited. The study design was a crossover randomised controlled trial in which all subjects received both massage interventions and control interventions on separate days. Manual massage was performed for both quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles for two minutes in total, in a rapid, superficial and stimulatory way. In the control group, subjects were asked to lie down for the same duration as the massage group. Vertical jump height was assessed before and after interventions.
There was no significant difference between the two groups in changes in vertical jump performance. Both groups showed no change after interventions compared to the baselines.
Two - minute quick massage did not improve vertical jump height immediately. Clinicians and athletes should be aware of the current evidence and decision making for the use of preperformance massage should be justified by individual needs and sound clinical reasoning.
The research evidence regarding the immediate effects of preperformance massage to improve muscle strength and functional performance is equivocal. In fact, some studies demonstrated that massage might inhibit muscle strength and compromise explosive performance, such as sprinting and vertical jump [2,9,10]. In most studies with negative findings regarding the effects of massage on strength and functional performance, massage tends to be long - duration massage (>10 minutes) [2,9,11]. In reality, however, it is often difficult and impractical for therapists working in teams to perform long-duration massage for every athlete before games.
Since resting effects in lying postures during any types of long - duration massage might facilitate parasympathetic nervous system activity, this potential relaxing effect might have affected the results in the studies with negative results of preperformance massage. It has been anecdotally suggested that quick and stimulatory massage for superficial muscles should be used before competitions to enhance motor output, whilst deep and relaxing massage should be adopted to encourage relaxation and post - exercise recovery . A recent study showed that manual massage with moderate pressure can elicit parasympathetic nervous system response . Considering those factors, it seems to be reasonable to speculate that the effects of massage on athletes’ functional performance might depend on the length and the type of the massage. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, however, there is no specific data to support the claim that quick short - duration manual massage techniques can improve functional performance.
The objective of this study was to examine acute effects of quick short - duration massage on vertical jump performance. Vertical jump was chosen as a primary outcome measure due to its relevance to many sports, such as basketball, volleyball, gymnastics and so on. A strong correlation between jump and sprint performances in elite football players may imply the importance of this outcome measure to represent overall physical competitiveness of athletes .
Research design and protocol
Figure 2: Examples of massage interventions; effleurage (left) and tapotement (right).
|Pre - intervention||Post - intervention|
|Massage (n = 15)||54.43 ± 6.06 cm||55.00 ± 6.38 cm|
|Control (n = 15)||55.63 ± 5.59 cm||55.27 ± 6.46 cm|
To date, to the best of the author’s knowledge, this study is the only investigation examining the acute effects of quick short - duration manual massage on vertical jump height as opposed to no intervention. Many studies investigated the effects of longer-duration preperformance massage on muscle strength and explosive performance, such as sprinting and vertical jump and found that they were not effective or even detrimental [2,4,9-11]. Our findings were in line with those studies, implying that any types of massage might not be effective to enhance athletes’ vertical jump performance acutely.
Although these findings suggest that any types of preperformance massage are not efficacious to improve athletes’ explosive performance acutely, it does not negate its clinical utility in all circumstances. Some studies demonstrated that massage can modulate pain and increase range of motion [22,23]. It might be appropriate to conduct preperformance massage for athletes with pain or athletes who require greater range of motion to achieve better performance. Other studies showed that massage can alleviate perceived fatigue and improve muscles strength after exhaustive exercises [24-26]. It might be appropriate to perform massage between sets of games to achieve better endurance and performance afterwards. Manual massage was found to be effective to reduce stress [27,28]. Preperformance massage might be appropriate when athletes’ excessive nervousness can compromise their physical capabilities. Additionally, the findings in this study suggest that rapid preperformance massage might not negatively affect vertical jump performance in the short term. One crossover RCT also suggested that the acute effects of massage were not detrimental on tennis players’ grip strength . Thus, potential mental benefits might justify its use in some cases. Overall, preperformance massage should be carefully used based on the combination of research evidence, athletes’ individual needs and clinicians’ clinical reasoning.
Several methodological limitations should be acknowledged in this study. A first problem lies in the sampling method. As we recruited subjects with varied exercise habits, this heterogeneity might have biased the findings. The study might have been underpowered (power = 0.20) due to the small sample size (n = 15) . An inclusion of non-athletes was another limitation, as athletic population was more relevant. Since the therapist who performed the massage also conducted the vertical jump measurements, the assessor was not blinded. It is theoretically possible that the absence of blinding might have biased the measurement results. Also, this study did not consider other contributing factors to athletes overall performance, such as endurance, flexibility and psychological states. Lastly, it is not realistic to perform preperformance massage alone as a warm-up. It is often combined with other warm-up strategies, such as aerobic exercises, stretching and motor imagery. Thus, this study failed to capture the real effects of preperformance massage in the contexts of other warm-up interventions. Further studies with more methodological rigour are required to contribute to stronger evidence on this topic.
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Citation:Mine K (2017) Acute Effects of Quick Short - Duration Massage On Vertical Jump; A Crossover Randomised Controlled Trial. J Phys Med Rehabil Disabil 3: 019
Copyright: © 2017 Koya Mine, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.