Advances in Industrial Biotechnology Category: Biotechnology Type: Research Article
Development of Biosurfactant Based Cosmetic Formulation of Toothpaste and Exploring its Efficacy
- Amar Jyoti Das1, Shweta Ambust1, Rajesh Kumar2*
- 1 Department Of Environmental Microbiology, School For Environmental Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, India
- 2 Department Of Environmental Microbiology, Vidya Vihar, Raibareli Road, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow-226 025, India
*Corresponding Author:Rajesh Kumar
Department Of Environmental Microbiology, Vidya Vihar, Raibareli Road, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow-226 025, India
Received Date: Aug 01, 2018 Accepted Date: Sep 05, 2018 Published Date: Sep 19, 2018
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Extraction of biosurfactant
Development of toothpaste bioformulation
Comparative study of formulation with commercial toothpaste
Determination of spreadability: Both pea sized amount of commercial toothpaste and bioformulation toothpaste was placed on the centre of the wooden table and pressed by weighted flat and plain surface wood. After 10 minutes, the weight is removed and the diameter of the paste is measured in centimeter . The experiment was performed thrice.
Determination of bacterial load: To determine the microbial load on the teeth after brushing, both formulated and commercial toothpaste was brushed on human teeth procured from medically certified dentist. After brushing the teeth were dip into sterile distilled water for few minutes and the sterile distilled water is used to determine the microbial load (CFU) between 3 hour, 6 hour, 12 hour and 24 hours by spreading on agar plate by serial dilution.
Cleaning test: Cleaning ability of the commercial and formulated tooth paste were determined by brushing the teeth respectively with both the paste.
Removal of yellowness of the teeth: To remove the yellowness of the teeth, each tooth was treated with 1 gm turmeric powder for 24 hours, due to which the teeth developed yellowness and than after teeth were brushed with formulated and commercial toothpaste respectively.
Toxicity assay: Toxicity of industrial products is one of the immense problems of recent time. Hence in order to reduce the toxicity many new formulations have been developed. So, in present study the toxicity test was important aspect to prove better performance of developed bioformulation as the biosurfactant are non toxic and biodegradable in nature. The toxicity was performed on the basis of its toxicity toward seed germination index. Briefly, for determining toxicity assay mustard and wheat seeds were surface sterilized with 0.1% aqueous HgCl2 solution. Toxicity was determined in sterilized Petri dishes (10 cm) containing Whatman No.1 filter paper. Ten seeds were placed in each Petri dish, followed by addition of 5ml of commercial and formulated toothpaste wash solution at room temperature. After five days of incubation relative seed germination, relative root length and germination index was determined .
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Characterization of biosurfactant
Comparative study of formulation with commercial toothpaste
Abrasive test: Toothpaste’s abrasiveness is measured by its Relative Dentin Abrasively (RDA). According to RDA value 0 to 70 RDA value indicates low abrasive, 70 to 100 values indicate medium abrasive, 100 to 150 showed highly abrasive and 150 to 250 indicates regarded as harmful limit . So, here in case of abrasiveness taste the result showed that commercial tooth paste and bioformulation toothpaste has nearly same abrasive particle because of that reason the scratches are same in both the toothpaste (Figure 1).
F- Formulated Toothpaste; C- Commercial Toothpaste
Spread ability test: Spreadability was another characteristic of toothpaste. It showed the consistency of paste. Basically the toothpastes are homogenous in nature and it should not separate into liquid and solid ingredients. The large spread area has shown the good consistency of toothpaste . The results of spreadability of both the paste were shown in figure 2.
Toxicity analysis: Toxicity of cosmetics products is one of the immense problems of recent time. Hence in order to reduce the toxicity many new herbal and environmental friendly formulations have been developed. So, in present study the toxicity test was important aspect to prove better performance of developed toothpaste formulation as the biosurfactant are non toxic and biodegradable in nature. The toxicity was performed on the basis of its toxicity toward seed germination index (Figure 5). The present results indicate that the formulated detergent is less toxic in nature.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The research support received form DST Inspire programme to author Amar Jyoti Das is duly acknowledged.
- Regös J, Hitz HR (1974) Investigations on the mode of action of Triclosan, a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent. Zentralbl Bakteriol Orig A 226: 390-401.
- Bondi CAM, Marks JL, Wroblewski LB, Raatikainen HS, Lenox SR, et al. (2015) Human and Environmental Toxicity of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS): Evidence for Safe Use in Household Cleaning Products. Environ Health Insights 9: 27-32.
- Cameotra SS, Singh P (2009) Synthesis of rhamnolipid biosurfactant and mode of hexadecane uptake by Pseudomonas species. Microbial Cell Factories 8: 16.
- Nwakanma C, Ejim CJ, Unachukwu MN (2014) The Effects of selected toothpaste on the microbial flora of the mouth of GOU Student. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 3: 785-792.
- Tuleva BK, Ivanov GR, Christova NE (2002) Biosurfactant production by a new Pseudomonas putida strain. Z Naturforsch C 57: 356-60.
- Das I, Roy S, Chandni S, Karthik L, Kumar G, et al. (2013) Biosurfactant from marine actinobacteria and its application in cosmetic formulation of toothpaste. Der Pharmacia Lettre 5: 1-6.
- Santos DKF, Rufino RD, Luna JM, Santos VA, Sarubbo LA (2016) Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century. Inter J Mol Sci 17: 401.
- Das AJ and Kumar R (2016) Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil to combat toxicity on Withania somnifera through seed priming with biosurfactant producing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. J Environ Manage 174: 79-86.
- Bodour AA, Drees KP, Maier RM (2003) Distribution of biosurfactant-producing bacteria in undisturbed and contaminated arid Southwestern soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 69: 3280-3287.
- Viramontes-Ramos S, Cristina Portillo-Ruiz M, Ballinas-Casarrubias Mde L, Torres-Muñoz JV, Rivera-Chavira BE, et al. (2010) Selection of biosurfactan/bioemulsifier-producing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Braz J Microbiol 41: 668-675.
- Cooper DG, Goldenberg BG (1987) Surface-Active Agents from Two Bacillus Species. Appl Environ Microbiol 53: 224-229.
- Gandhimathi R, Seghal Kiran G, Hema TA, Selvin J, Rajeetha Raviji T, et al. (2009) Production and characterization of lipopeptide biosurfactant by a sponge-associated marine actinomycetes Nocardiopsis alba MSA10. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 32: 825-835.
- Pansiripat S, Pornsunthorntawee O, Rujiravanit R, Kitiyanan B, Somboonthanate P, et al. (2010) Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SP4 using sequencing batch reactors: Effect of oil-to-glucose ratio. Biochemical Engineering Journal 49: 185-191.
- George S, Jayachandran K (2013) Production and characterization of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from waste frying coconut oil using a novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa D. J Appl Microbiol 114: 373-383.
- Tiquia SM, Tam NFY, Hodgkiss IJ (1996) Effects of composting on phytotoxicity of spent pig-manure sawdust litter. Environ Pollut 93: 249-256.
- Okpalugo J, Ibrahim K, Inyang US (2009) Toothpaste formulation efficacy in reducing oral flora. Trop J Pharm Res 8: 71-77.
Citation:Das AJ, Ambust S, Kumar R (2018) Development of Biosurfactant Based Cosmetic Formulation of Toothpaste and Exploring its Efficacy. Adv Ind Biotechnol 1: 005.
Copyright: © 2018 Amar Jyoti Das, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.