Journal of Nanotechnology Nanomedicine & Nanobiotechnology Category: Medical Type: Research Article
Effect of an Aqueous Nanosuspension of Clay Minerals on the Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Internal Organs of Broilers
- Nafez Al-Beitawi1*, Khaled Elshuraydeh2, Mohammad Al-Faqeih2, Moroug Zyadeh3
- 1 Department Of Animal Production, Faculty Of Agriculture, Jordan University Of Science And Technology, Irbid, Jordan, P.O.Box3005, Al-Jubeiha- 11141, Amman, Jordan
- 2 National Center For Research And Development, The Higher Council For Science And Technology, Amman, Jordan
- 3 Department Of Biology, Faculty Of Science, Jerash University, Jerash, Jordan
*Corresponding Author:Nafez Al-Beitawi
Department Of Animal Production, Faculty Of Agriculture, Jordan University Of Science And Technology, Irbid, Jordan, P.O.Box3005, Al-Jubeiha- 11141, Amman, Jordan
Received Date: Aug 17, 2016 Accepted Date: Mar 14, 2017 Published Date: Mar 31, 2017
The growth and development of muscles consists of hyperplasia, where the total number of myofibers increases and hypertrophy, which leads to the increased volume of the individual my fibers [2,3].
The experimental biology symposium entitled "Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences" was organized to highlight the emerging applications of nanotechnology in food and nutrition sciences and to suggest ways of further integrating of these emerging technologies with nutrition research. Nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize agriculture, veterinary medicine, animal health and other areas of animal production . Moreover reported that nanotechnology can increase the cost-effectiveness of poultry and meat products with natural properties . In the area of nutrition it is possible to apply nanotechnology in several ways such as obtaining information about a nutrient, avoiding nutrient degradation and obtaining greater availability . Minerals are one of the most widely- used supplements in animal nutrition . Developed highly available nanoparticles of ferric phosphate, demonstrating that the nanoscale of this nutrient increased its nutritional value. However, in research on the mineral nutrition of poultry, several minerals are important. Therefore, this study focuses on the effect of nanotechnology on clay minerals obtained from different areas of Jordan as an inexpensive source of several minerals, and examines their effect on broiler growth performance, carcass characteristics and internal organs measurements compared with or without antibiotics.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
|Basal diet||Antibiotics||Vaccines||1% aqueous nanosuspension||1.5% aqueous nanosuspension||2% aqueous nanosuspension|
Table 1: Scheme of treatments.
T1- offered one time per week, T2- offered one time per two weeks, T3- offered one time per week, T4- offered one time per two weeks, T5- offered one time per week, T6- offered one time per two weeks
Experimental rations: Chicks were fed a starter ration from one to 21-days of age and a finisher ration from 22 to 36-days of age (Table 2).
|Calculated feeding value|
|Crude protein (%)||22.30||18.73|
|Metabolizable energy (MJ)||12.30||12.65|
|Methionine + Cystine (%)||0.97||0.65|
|Analyzed feeding value|
|Crude Protein (%)||22.20||18.80|
Table 2: Composition of experimental rations.
All rations were formulated to meet the requirements recommended by the strain guide. A randomized sample from each starter and finisher diets were collected for proximate analysis by the procedure described by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists .
Preparation of clay minerals sample: A sample of clay minerals was used for the preparation of the aqueous nanosuspension used in the experiment. The sample of clay minerals obtained from Jordan was mechanically wet ground to the nano-scale using two adjacent concentric cylinders (inner diameter of the outer cylinder-outer diameter of inner cylinder =1 mm) with a rotating inner cylinder (12,000 rpm) and a fixed outer cylinder at room temperature for 1 minute. The pot time of the aqueous nanosuspension was approximately about one-half hour and the suspensions were further stabilized by mechanical stirring. Samples of the aqueous nanosuspensions were imaged under a transmission electron microscope, and the image revealed the "unite structure" of the clay minerals, i.e., "nano-flake" with length of ca.100 nm and thickness of ca. 1 nm (Figure 1). The chemical composition of the bulk clay mineral materials was analyzed for its major elements. The results from a standard inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry analysis revealed the chemical composition as shown in table 3.
Figure 1: Image reveals the “unite structure” of the clay minerals (nano-flake”).
Table 3: Chemical composition of clay minerals sample.
Preparation of aqueous nanosuspensions of clay minerals: The aqueous nanosuspensions of clay minerals were prepared with 3 different concentrations (1%, 1.5% and 2%) by adding 10, 15 and 20g of the clay minerals sample respectively to one liter of potable. The pH value of the aqueous nanosuspensions was 8.3-9.1 (alkaline). The above procedure was designed and implemented by Prof. Khaled Elshuraydeh, Secretary General of the Higher Council for Science and Technology and vice president of the National Center for Research and Development, Amman, Jordan.
Carcass characteristics: At the end of the experiment (36-days of age). 5 broiler chickens from each replicate within each treatment were randomly selected and weighed to obtain their LBW. These animals were sacrificed using sharp knife and completely bled and the feathers were plucked. The head viscera and shanks were removed. The carcass was held for one hour to remove excess water. Maintained overnight in a refrigerator at 4 ±1°C and then weighed. The dressing percentage was calculated without the giblets.
The thighs, drumsticks, breasts and wings were separated and weighed individually. Data from these measurements were used to calculate the percentage of each part to the total live weight.
Internal organs: The heart, liver, gizzard, proventriculus, pancreas, spleen and bursa of fabricious gland were individually weighed.
Statistical analysis: Each pen was used as an experimental unit. All statistical analysis were perform using SPSS version 17 . Collected data were statistically analyzed by two ways ANOVA to examine the effects of feeding treatments with or without antibiotics and their interactions. When interaction effect were significant (P<0.05) differences between means were analyzed by least square means comparison. Differences considered significant at (P<0.05).
|Treatments Parameters||C I With antibiotics||C II Without antibiotics||1%/1wk ANS||1%/2 wks ANS||1.5%/1wk ANS||1.5%/2wks ANS||2%/1wk ANS||2%/2wks ANS|
|Live Body Weight (LBW) Kg||2.08±0.02ab||2.02±0.03bc||1.95±0.03d||2.03±0.03bc||1.99±0.02cd||2.04±0.03b||2.04±0.02b||2.10±0.02a|
|Body Weight Gain (BWG) Kg||2.04±0.02a||1.98±0.03bc||1.91±0.03c||1.99±0.03b||1.95±0.02bc||2.00±0.03ab||2.00±0.02ab||2.06±0.02a|
|Cumulative Feed Intake (CFI) Kg||3.43±0.04a||3.40±0.04a||3.23±0.03c||3.30±0.04b||3.31±0.03b||3.41±0.03a||3.37±0.04ab||3.30±0.03b|
|Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR)||1.65±0.02bc||1.68±0.01a||1.66±0.01bc||1.63±0.01c||1.66±0.01ab||1.67±0.01ab||1.65±0.01bc||1.57±0.01d|
Table 4: Effect of aqueous nanosuspension of clay minerals on growth performance of broiler chickens at 36-days of age.
a-b means with different superscript in the same row are significantly different at P <0.05.
|Treatmentsparameters||C I With antibiotics||C II Without antibiotics||1%/1wk ANS||1%/2 wks ANS||1.5%/1wk ANS||1.5%/2wks ANS||2%/1wk ANS||2%/2wks ANS|
|Dressing %||72.27± 0.34b||68.15±0.27d||69.76± 0.30c||72.17±0.28b||69.85±0.30c||70.11±0.30c||70.45±0.35c||73.45±0.30a|
Table 5: Effect of nanosuspension of clay minerals on carcass characteristics of broiler chickens at 36-days of age.
a-e means with different superscript in the same row are significantly different p<0.05.
Internal organs parameters
|Treatments parameters||C I With antibiotics||C II Without antibiotics||1%/1wk ANS||1%/2 wks ANS||1.5%/1wk ANS||1.5%/2wks ANS||2%/1wk ANS||2%/2wks ANS|
Table 6: Effect of aqueous nanosuspension of clay minerals on internal organs of broiler chickens at 36-days of age.
Internal organs parameters
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Citation:Al-Beitawi N, Elshuraydeh K, Al-Faqeih M, Zyadeh M (2017) Effect of an Aqueous Nanosuspension of Clay Minerals on the Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Internal Organs of Broilers. J Nanotechnol Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 4: 013.
Copyright: © 2017 Nafez Al-Beitawi, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.