Journal of Medicine Study & Research Category: Medical Type: Research Article

Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants in Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta State

ADJENE Josiah Obaghwarhievwo1, Ighomuaye Oghenetega Treasure1 and Odigie Mike Osagie2*
1 Department Of Public And Community Health, Novena University, Delta State, Nigeria
2 Department Of Physiology, Faculty Of Basic Medical Sciences, College Of Health Sciences, Delta State University, Delta State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author(s):
Odigie Mike Osagie
Department Of Physiology, Faculty Of Basic Medical Sciences, College Of Health Sciences, Delta State University, Delta State, Nigeria
Tel:+234 7036844454,
Email:osgiedeprof@yahoo.com

Received Date: Feb 16, 2020
Accepted Date: Mar 09, 2020
Published Date: Mar 16, 2020

Abstract

Indigenous medicinal plants form an important component of the natural wealth and culture of a geographical area, the study of plant began with tribal efforts to identify edible, medicinal and poisonous plants. Many of the traditional methods and general knowledge of medicinal plants are being lost to time as healers and tribal elder’s age and die. Scientists are searching for ways to preserve this knowledge and to test them against contemporary diseases. This is a descriptive study that investigated the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of diseases in Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta state. Information was obtained through interviews using structured questionnaires. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. The analyzed data was presented in descriptive statistics using tables, charts and frequency and inferential statistic using chi-square and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Result showed that most of the respondents 270 (77.14%) were above age 30 years while most 250 (71.43%) were males and almost two-third 230 (65.71%) were married. Majority 150 (42.86%) attained O level as their highest level of education. Majority of the respondents (270) 75.0% affirmed to be aware of medicinal plant, 55% of the respondents got their information about medicinal plant from their parents, while 35% undergo training for usage of medicinal plant, 91.43% affirmed to use of medicinal plants very often. The most prevalent disease conditions treated with medicinal plants were malaria 92 (26.29%). Trees 44.59% were the most used forms of plants for the treatment of ailment and the most used of part of plant for the treatment of ailment were leaf 128 (36.84%). The main route of administration of medicinal plants is the mouth and decoction was the main method of preparation by 254 (72.46%). It is concluded that most persons in the rural area prefer the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases for the reason of affordability, effectiveness, availability and accessibility of practitioners. It is recommended for this reasons or advantages, traditional medicine is useful to the health of the nation and should be integrated or co-recognized with modern or orthodox medicine practice and its operation should be re-evaluated and standardized for optimal effects.

Keywords

Delta state; Ethnobotany; Medicinal plants; Ughelli

INTRODUCTION

The attempt by mankind to use plant products to cure diseases and relieve physical suffering is as old as creation [1]. Human have derived many uses and benefits from the plants indigenous to their locality and have resorted to nature, mainly plants for medicine and health sources [1]. The indigenous medicinal plants form an important component of the natural wealth and culture of a geographical area. The study of plant began with tribal efforts to identify edibile, medicinal and poisonous plants making botany one of the oldest sciences, of all the species of plants studied only about 60 have been evaluated phytochemically [2]. Plants have been used as drugs for centuries, initially as traditional preparations [3]. The use of plant species as traditional medicines provides a real substitute to orthodox healthcare services for rural communities of the developing nations [4]. It has been estimated that around 80% of the population in developing countries depends on traditional medicines for primary health care system. These traditional medicines are cost-effective, safe and affordable [5]. Globally, approximately 85% of the traditional medicines used in primary healthcare are derived from plant species [6]. Therefore, medicinal plants are the indigenous heritage of global importance [7].

The utilization of plants and their resources for combating various ailments predates written history and they are still in use all over the world. The oldest written evidence of the usage of medicinal plants for the preparation of drugs has been found on a Sumerian clay slab from Nagpur, which is believed to be approximately 5000 years old. The isolation of morphine from opium in the early 19th century served as a gate opener for many studies aimed at isolating active compounds from medicinal plants, and this breakthrough led to the isolation of other bioactive compounds, such as cocaine, codeinedigitoxin and quinine. Although pharmaceutical companies and Research and Development (R and D) organizations are placing increased interest in molecular modeling, combinatorial chemistry and other synthetic chemistry techniques, natural products, specifically medicinal plants, remain the source of new drugs, new drugs leads and new chemical entities [8].

In Africa alone, it is estimated that 70%-80% of people still prefer consulting traditional medical practitioners for health care. Numerous drugs have entered into the international market through exploration of ethno pharmacology and traditional medicine with extensive uses of medicinal plants. It is estimated that 25% of prescription drugs contain active principles derived from higher plants [9,10]. Many of the traditional methods and general knowledge of medicinal flora is being lost to time. As healers and tribal elder’s age and die, their knowledge is dying with them. Scientists are searching for ways to preserve this knowledge and to test them against contemporary diseases. Fewer than 5% of tropical forest plant species have been examined for their chemical compounds and medicinal value. This left great potential for even more discovery, but also the potential for great loss as forests are felled around the globe and unstudied species are lost to extinction [11]. This study (Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants use Ughelli North Local Government area, Delta State) is to identify and document medicinal plants use for the treatment of various ailments.

Aim of Study

Current study aimed at reviewing major ethnobotanical medicinal plants in Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta State, Southern Nigeria. Specifically, study;

      • Investigated the frequency and usage of selected Medicinal Plants
      • Ascertained the forms of plants used for treatment of diseases
      • Evaluated the Routes of administration of selected ethnobotanical medicinal plants

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study design

This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that investigated the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of diseases in Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta state. Information was obtained through interviews using structured questionnaires. Field excursions with traditional healers and herbal medicine collectors were carried out.

Study area

Ughelli North is a Local Government Area of Delta StateNigeria, with headquarter in the city of Ughelli. It has an area of 818 km2 and a population of 321,028 at the 2006 census. The postal code of the area is 333. The local government shares boundaries with Ughelli south, Isoko south, Isoko north, Patani Ethiope east and Ndokwa west local government areas.

Scope of study

This study is focus on the awareness and use of medicinal plants in Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta state.

Study population

The population of study consists of people who have knowledge of the medicinal plants, those above 15years of age. This age bracket was chosen because the researcher wants responses from everyone who has knowledge of medicinal plants found in their environment. The Urhobos were chosen because they are one of major ethnic group in Delta State.

Inclusion criteria

Those with the knowledge of medicinal plants such as the herbal practitioners.

Exclusion criteria

Those without the knowledge of medicinal plants.

Sample procedure/ size

The sample size of this research consisted of various individuals with knowledge of medicinal plants in Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta State. This sample size was chosen based on conveience sampling.

Research instrument

Questionnaire method was used for data collection among those with the knowledge of medicinal plants above 16 years of age. Structured survey questionnaire on the research topic was designed and administered to respondent.

Method for data analysis

The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. The analyzed data was presented in descriptive statistics using tables, charts and frequency and inferential statistic using Chi-square and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).

Validity of instrument

The questionnaire was submitted to the project supervisor with the objectives of the study and research question for review in form of clarity, appropriateness of the language, introduction and expression to the respondents. The researcher made necessary modifications after the review. The instrument was constructed in such a way that if administered by another individual given the same condition the findings would remain constant. Face and content validity was used by the project supervisor to determine the validity of the questionnaire.

Reliability of instrument 

Pilot study was carried out by choosing respondents outside the sample area and offer or administer questionnaire to them, they were required to answer, return the questionnaire and data and the results were analyzed. The results were found consistent and reliable. 

Ethical consideration

Ethnical approval was obtained from the supervisor of this research. Individual consent was taken from the respondent before questionnaire administration. The right of respondent was protected by informing them about the purpose of the study and not coercing them to participate. All information was solely for research purpose and kept confidential during and after the research.

DISCUSSION

According to table 1, majority of the respondents (77.14%) where above 30 years of age while most (71.43%) were males. In general, the gender was not significantly correlated to age and plant knowledge [12]. Even though all the respondents generally used plants, it has been common that in many parts of the world, women always demonstrate a more extensive knowledge in the use of plants this is due to their role in the family as a home-maker. This conforms to the survey carried out in Metropolitan Kano, Nigeria where majority of the respondents were above 36 years and of 36 respondents only five were females [13]. As shown in table 2, plants used in treatment of malaria, fever and diabetes were the most recurrent. The prevalence of malaria and fever may be due to the presence of bushes and stagnant water leading to high density of mosquitoes. Also prevalence of diabetes recorded in this survey maybe due to the fact that most of the food indigenous to this locality is starchy and less consumption of vegetables. The result is conforms to the survey carried out in Akwa Ibom state of Nigeria where plants used for treatment of malaria were most recurrent [14]. This is in contrast with the survey carried out among the Esan people of Edo state where gastro-intestinal disease had the highest number of herbal plants for its treatment [15]. Trees were the most frequently used plant form as shown in figure 1. This is in contrast to the survey carried out in Babungo, Camaroon where herbs were most frequently used plant form, the survey carried out in Edo state among the people of Esan where leaf was mostly used and the survey carried out among the Nandi people of Kenya were leaf formed the major component of plant parts exploited [16,17]. However, in the study carried out in Oshikoto region of Namibia, trees were found to be the most used plant form [18]. 

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Age (Years)

 

 

16-30

80

22.86

> 30

270

77.14

Sex

 

 

Female

100

28.57

Male

250

71.43

Marital Status

 

 

Single

90

25.71

Married

230

65.71

Divorced

30

8.58

Literacy

 

 

No formal Education

60

17.14

O level

150

42.86

OND

70

20

HND

50

14.29

BSc

20

5.71

Table 1: Socio-demographic Characteristics of the respondents.

According to table I, majority of the respondents 270 (77.14%) were above age 30 years while most 250 (71.43%) were males and almost two-third 230 (65.71%) were married. The educational level of the respondents shows that about 150 (42.86%) attained O level, while 70 (20.0%) attained OND and 60 (17.14%) had no formal education. 

Figure 1: Forms of plants used for treatment of diseases.

The figure shows that tree 44.59% was the most used forms of plants for the treatment of ailment, followed by herbs 27.02%, shrubs 20.27% and Climber 8.12%.

Figure 2: Methods of preparationm of medicinal plants.

Figure 2, shows that 38.54% method of preparation was decoction, 38.05% was crushing, 11.72% was maceration, 4.88% was cook as meal/soup and 3.91% was infusion. 

Figure 3: Source of information of medicinal plants.

According to figure 3, 55% of the respondents got their information about medicinal plant from their parents, while 35% undergo training for usage of medicinal plant and 10% had about medicinal plant from their neighbours.  

 

Momordica charantia

1

8

1.64

 

Xylopia aethiopica

1

 

Senna alata

2

Convulsion

Ocimum gratissimum

3

16

3.27

Vernonia amygdalina

1

Zingiber officinale

1

Momordica charantia

5

Elaeis guineensis

5

Allium cepa

1

Cough

Bryophyllum pinnatum

2

12

2.45

Ocimum gratissimum

1

Zingiber officinale

1

Curcuma longa

1

Garcinia kola

2

Elaeis guineensis

4

Pentaclethra macroloha

1

Detoxifier/antioxidant/Poison
Antidote

Moringa oleifera

1

9

1.84

Citrus paradis i

1

Garcinia kola

1

Cocos nucifera

2

Elaeis guineensis

3

Citrus sinensis

1

Diabetes

Ann on a muricata

1

25

5.11

Moringa oleifera

2

Ocimum gratissimum

2

Vernonia amygdalina

9

Mangifera indica

1

Zea mays

1

Garcinia kola

1

Momordica charantia

3

Persea americana

1

Hibiscus rosasinensis

1

Piper guineense

3

Diarrhoea

Psidium guajava

1

6

0.61

Vernonia .amygdalina

2

Dysentery

Ocimum gratissimum

2

5

1.02

Jatropha curcas

1

Gossypium hirsutum

2

Dysmeno-Rrhoea

Psidium guajava

1

6

1.23

Vernonia amygdalina

1

Zingiber officinale

2

Curcuma longa

2

Ear pain/ear Sores

Bryophyllum pinnatum

4

5

1.02

Gossypium hirsutum

1

Eczema

Vernonia amygdalina

1

3

0.61

Senna alata

2

Eye pain/itches

Bryophyllum pinnatum

1

3

0.61

Ageratum conyzoides

1

Peperomia pellucida

1

Quick Delivery

Cynodon dactylon

1

1

0.2

Female Infertility (in menstruating women)

Ageratum conyzoides

1

3

0.61

Aframomum melegueta

2

Fever

Carica papaya

4

32

6.54

Ageratum conyzoides  

1

Ocimum gratissimum

2

Jatropha curcas

1

Psidium guajava

1

Lansium domesticum

2

Citrus aurantifolia

7

Chromolaena odorata

1

Gossypium hirsutum

1

Mangifera indica

4

Anacardium Occident ale

2

Cymbopogon citratus

3

Persea americana

1

Azadirachta indica

2

Fibroid

Cocos nucifera

1

2

0.41

Piper guineense

1

Fractures

Cynodon dactyl on

1

1

0.2

General ill health/ weakness

Cocos nucifera

1

2

0.41

Sida acuta

1

General vitamins/oil

Moringa oleifera

1

3

0.61

Psidium guajava

1

Elaeis guineenses

1

Goiter

Musa paradisiaca

1

1

0.2

Gonorrhoea

Jatropha curcas

1

9

1.84

Citrus aurantifolia

1

Ficuasper[folia

1

Tamarindus indica

1

Nicotiana tabacum

1

Rauwolfia vomitoria

1

Piper guineense Arachis spp

1

Haemorrhage

Jatropha curcas

1

10

2.04

Chromolaena odorata

1

Musa paradisiaca

1

Momordica charantia

 

Peperomia pellucida

 

Hair lice

Rauwolfia vomitoria

1

1

0.2

Headache

Jatropha curcas

1

4

0.82

Citrus aur antifolia

1

Aframomum melegueta

1

Allium cep a

 

Heart diseases

Musa paradisiaca Zea mays

1

2

0.41

1

HIV

Hibiscus rosasinensis

1

1

0.2

Hepatitis and liver Infections

Zingiber officinale

1

6

1.23

Curcuma longa

1

Garcinia kola

1

Cocos nucifera

 

Hernia

Allium cepa

1

2

0.41

Allium sativum

1

Dioscorea bulbifera

1

L i q u i dam bar styracifl ua

1

Hot flushes and Miscarriage

Curcuma longa Momordica charantia

1

 

1.02

Piper guineense

1

Peperomia pellucida

1

Hypertension

Moringa oleifera

2

19

3.89

Ocimum gratissimum

2

Acalypha marginata

3

Musa paradisiaca

1

Cymbopogon citratus

1

Zea mays Aloe vera

1

Terminalia catappa

1

Dialium guineense

1

Viscum album

1

Ficus asperifolia

1

Allium sativum

1

Xylopia aethiopica

1

Impotence

Zingiber officinale

1

4

0.82

Cola acuminata

1

Garcinia kola

1

Allium sativum

1

Infertility (both male and female)

Musa sapientum

1

2

0.41

Citrus sinensis

1

Insecticide

Chromolaena odorata

1

2

0.41

Cymbopogon citratus

1

Insomnia

Cola acuminata

1

2

0.41

Terminalia catappa

1

Internal Ulcer e.g. peptic and intestinal

Carica papaya

1

9

1.84

Bryophyllum pinnatum

1

Jatropha curcas

 

Musa paradisiaca

 

Sanseviera liberica

 

Itching

Piper guineense

1

1

0.2

Jaundice

Carica papaya

1

18

3.68

Ocimum gratissimum

1

Jatropha curcas

1

Lansium domeslicum

1

Citrus aurantifolia

1

Senna alata

1

Aloe vera

1

Zingiber officinale

1

Dialium guineense

1

Newbouldia laevis

1

Garcinia kola

 

Xylopia aethiopica

 

Kidney infection/Diseases

Musa paradisiaca

1

4

0.82

Zea mays

1

Cocos nucifera

1

Sida acuta

1

Low sperm Count

Hibiscus rosasinensis

1

1

0.2

Lymphadeno-Pathy

Dialium guineense

1

1

0.2

Malaria/ malaria fever

Carica papaya

7

58

11.86

Alstonia boonei

1

Ocimum gratissimum

2

Phyllanthus amarus

3

Psidium guajava

2

Lansium domesticum

8

Citrus aurantifolia

4

Gossypium hirsutum

3

Mangifera indica

6

Anacardium occidentale

2

Cymbopogon citratus

2

Aloe vera

2

Curcuma longa

1

Dialium guineense

1

Newbouldia laevis

1

Garcinia kola

1

Sida acuta

1

Azadirachta indica

 

Pentaclethra macroloba

1

Xylopia aethiopica

 

Acalypha wilkesiana

1

Codaeium variegatum

1

Vernonia amvgdalina

1

Capsicum frutescens

1

Measles

Ageratum conyzoides

1

3

0.61

Citrus aurantifolia

1

Capsicum annuum

1

Mental illness

Cocos nucifera

1

2

0.41

 

Rauwoljia vomitoria

1

Nervous Disorder

Cymbopogon citratus

1

1

0.2

Obesity/weight loss

Citrus aurantifolia

1

4

0.82

Citrus paradisi

 

Zea mays

1

Oedema

Zea mays

1

1

0.2

Pains-muscle, waist, chest, Back

Alchornea laxijlora

1

7

1.43

Senna alata

1

Curcuma longa

1

Cola nitida

1

Persea americana

1

Ficus asperifolia

1

Hibiscus rosasinensis

1

Pile

Carica papaya

1

5

1.02

Vernonia amygdalina

1

Senna alata

1

Curcuma longa

1

Emilia sonchifolia

1

Pimples

Senna alata

2

2

0.41

Poor memory

Cocos nucifera

1

1

0.2

Post natal Treatment

Anacardium Occident ale

1

1

0.2

Pregnancy development

Aframomum melegueta

1

2

0.41

Tamarindus indica

1

Prevention of Injury

Ageratum conyzoides Aframomum melegueta

1

2

0.41

Aframomum melegueta

1

Rectal Infection

Jatropha curcas

1

1

0.2

Rheumatism

Cymbopogon citratus

1

4

0.82

Curcuma longa

1

B ambus a vulgaris

1

Xylopia aethiopica

1

Ringworm

Carica papaya

1

6

1.23

Senna alata

3

Ficus asperifolia

2

Scorpion sting

Allium cepa

2

4

0.82

Manihot esculenta

2

Skin diseases and infections

Senna alata

5

8

1.64

Ficus asperifolia

2

Citrus limon

1

Snake bite

Allium cepa

1

2

0.41

Manihot esculenta

1

Sores/wound Healing

Carica papaya

1

10

2.04

Bryophyllum pinnatum

4

Jatropha curcas

1

Chromolaena odorata

3

 Musa paradisiaca

1

Splenomegaly

Curcuma longa

1

2

0.41

Ficus asperifolia

1

Stimulant

Cola acuminata

1

1

0.2

Stomach Disorder

Ocimum gratissimum

5

22

4.5

Vernonia amygdalina

3

Gossypium hirsutum

3                  

Epimedium grandiflorum

1

Phyll anth us a mar us

1

Jatropha curcas

1

Chromolaena odorata

1

Curcuma longa

 

Azadirachta indica

 

Epimedium grandiflorum

 

Psidium guajava

 

Stroke

Carica papaya

1

5

1.02

Ageratum conyzoides

1

 Vernonia amygdalina

1

Elaeis guineesis

1

Capsicum annuum

1

Syphilis

Jatropha curcas

1

1

0.2

Candidal Infection

Cocos nucifera

1

1

0.2

Toothache/ mouth sores

Alchornea taxi flora

1

3

0.61

Elaeis guineesis

1

Spondias mombin

1

Typhoid

Ocimum gratissimum

1

4

0.82

Vernonia amygdalina

1

Gossypium hirsutum

1

Codaeium variegatum

1

Typhoid fever

Carica papaya

1

8

1.04

Citrus aurantifolia

1

Chromolaena odorata

 

Mangifera indica

 

Urinary tract Infection

Chromolaena odorata

1

9

0.41

Ficus asperifolia

1

Venereal Diseases

Carica papaya

1

4

0.82

Senna alata

1

Terminalia catappa

1

Capsicum Jrutescens

1

Vermifuge

Rauwolfia vomitoria

1

2

0.41

Sanseviera liberica

1

Vomiting

Vernonia amygdalina

1

1

0.2

Weak erection

Carica papaya

1

5

1.02

Aloe vera

1

Aframomum meleguata

1

Rauwolfia vomitoria

1

Capsicum frutescens

1

Whitlow

Alchornea laxiflora

1

4

0.82

Citrus aurantifolia

1

Amaranthus spinosus

 

Yaw

Rauwolfia vomitoria

1

1

0.2

Yellow fever

Senna alata

1

5

1.02

Cymbopogon citratus

1

Aloe vera

2

Curcuma longa

1

Table 2: Usage of Available Medicinal Plants with their Frequency. 

The survey also observed that the following plant parts were used; leaf, stem, flower, bulb, bark, root, fruit, seed/pod/nut juice/sap, whole plant and rhizome. As seen in table 3 leaf was most frequently used? This is in contrast with survey carried out in Oshikoto region in Namibia where root was the frequently used [19]. It is however similar to the survey carried out among the Esan people of Edo state, Nigeria, the Nandi people of Kenya and the Babungo of Cameroon where leaf was also the most frequently used plant part. The common methods of preparation were decoction, crushing, maceration, cooking as meal/soup, infusion and burning/roasting. Decoction was used mainly for children and exceptional persons who would want to avoid alcohol. This conforms to the survey carried out in Plateau of Allada, Benin (West Africa) where decoction (79%) was the main mode of preparation and the survey carried out among the Yoruba tribe of South Western Nigeria which also showed decoction (90.4%) was the frequently used method of anti-viral herbal preparation [17]. Also cooking as soup is an embracing method of preparation since pepper soup is one of the meals indigenous to this locality. 

Variable

Frequency (n)

Percentage (%)

Leaf

128

36.84

Stem

26

7.52

Flower

5

1.5

Bulb

5

1.5

Bark

26

7.52

Root

50

14.29

Fruit

45

12.78

Seed/Pod/Nut

40

11.29

Juice/Sap

8

2.26

Tuber

5

1.5

Whole Plant

5

1.5

Rhizome

7

2

Table 3: Parts of Plants used for the Treatment of Ailments.

The survey also shows in table 4 that the route of administration included oral, topical, rectal, otic, buccal and ophthalmic. The oral route of administration was the most frequently used. This result is in agreement with the study carried out on the survey of medicinal plants used by the Nandi people of Kenya and the survey of medicinal plants use among the Esan people of Edo state, Nigeria. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in treating viral infection among Yoruba tribe of South Western Nigeria also showed that oral application had the highest mode of administration (83.7%). From the result, the prevalent disease conditions included malaria/fever, diabetes, hypertension, jaundice, convulsion, anemia/hematinic, stomach pain/cleansing, cough, sores/wound healing and hemorrhage. Malaria was the prevalent disease condition treated with medicinal plants as shown in table 5. Malaria is one of the world’s most important parasitic disease and a leading cause of death especially in developing countries leading to about 1.2 million estimated deaths each year in Africa (WHO, 2014), with pregnant women and children below 5 years being mostly affected [11]. 

Variable

Frequency (n)

Percentage (%)

Oral

254

72.46

Topical

72

20.65

Buccal

5

1.45

Opthalmic

8

2.45

Rectal

4

1.09

Otic

7

1.9

Table 4: Route of administration of medicinal plants. 

Variable

Frequency (n)

Percentage (%)

Malaria

92

26.29

Fever

64

18.29

Diabetes

15

4.3

Hypertension

35

10

Jaundice

18

5.14

Convulsion

32

4.57

Anaemia/haematinics

14

4

Stomach pain/cleansing

22

6.29

Cough

32

9.14

Sores/wound healing

10

2.86

Haemorrhage

16

9.12

Table 5: Most prevalent disease condition treated with medicinal plants.

The problem of resistance to existing antimalarial agents by parasite has necessitated the search for new and potent agents, and the focus of researchers is on natural plants since active compounds like quinine and artemisinin were isolated from plants and have been lead compounds for antimalarial drug development [20]. Plants such as  Carica papaya, Alstonia boonei, Ocimum gratissimum, Phyllanthus amarus, Psidium guajava, Lansium domesticum, Citrus aurantifolia, Gossypium hirsutum, Mangifera indica, Anacardium occidentale, Cymbopogon citratus, Aloe vera, Curcuma longa, Sida acuta, Azadirachta indica, Garcinia kola, Xylopia aethiopica, Vernonia amvgdalina, Carica papaya,  have been identified to be effective and used for the treatment of malaria and fever by the people in Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta State. It is clear from current study that malaria appears to be the most frequently treated ailment with medicinal plants, with leafs being the most used plant part, and trees as the most frequently used form. Also, Oral routes were the most frequent route of administration and decoction as the most frequent method of preparation. This study allows for identifying many high value medicinal plant species, indicating high potential for economic development through sustainable collection of these medicinal plants research. Knowledge of the use of plants as medicines remains mostly with the older generation with few youth showing an interest. The phytochemical characterization and pharmacological validation of these plants are to be carried out. More so, awareness regarding the conservation status of rare medicinal plants, domestication strategies as well as appropriate methods of exploitation is crucial for further studies to ensure a sustainable utilization and availability of these plants.

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Citation: Treasure IO, Obaghwarhievwo AJ, Odigie OM (2020) Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants in Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta State. J Med Stud Res 3: 014.

Copyright: © 2020  ADJENE Josiah Obaghwarhievwo, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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