Journal of Non Invasive Vascular Investigation Category: Clinical Type: Research Article
Microcirculation Evaluation of Leg Ulcers - An Innovative Diagnostic Approach
- Palumbo FP1*, Failla G2, Serantoni S1, Ardita G2, Gazzabin L1, Costanzo L2, Antignani PL3
- 1 Fu Surgery, Casa Di Cura “Villa Fiorita”, Prato, Italy
- 2 Ou Angiology, AOUP Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Italy
- 3 Vascular Centre, Nuova Villa Claudia, Rome, Italy
*Corresponding Author:Palumbo FP
Fu Surgery, Casa Di Cura “Villa Fiorita”, Prato, Italy
Tel:+39 349 7524568,
Received Date: Nov 08, 2018 Accepted Date: Feb 08, 2019 Published Date: Feb 22, 2019
Because of difficulty to obtain effective data in the bottom of the ulcer, Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis (LASCA) has been used to study capillary perfusion in this side [33-35]. LASCA is based on the concept that when a coherent light (as laser light) hits an object the scattered light will form a random interference pattern consisting in dark and brightness areas or speckle pattern. If the object is stationary the pattern will be clear, but with movement (as blood flow) speckle pattern will changes over time. By CCD camera is possible to capture these changes and depending on the degree of movement the level of blurring. The level of blurring is quantified by the speckle contrast and could be correlate with blood flow and blood perfusion measurement. Usually a helium-neon laser (633 nm) and CCD camera are employed for source and detector, respectively (Perimed AB) [36-40]. Aim of this research is the evaluation of skin circulation in vivo in patients affected of leg ulcers.
Table 1: Etiology.
All patients underwent to clinical, instrumental and serological examination and during admittance period routinary anti-platelet therapy was administered. In venous patients affected of post-thrombotic syndrome antithrombotic therapy was administered (Acenocumarol or NAO) plus compressive therapy (high stiffness bandages) and topic application of silver sulphadiazine surfactant dressing directly on the wound [29-31]. Vasculitis patients were assessed by arterial and venous Eco Color Doppler and Serological Immunoassays. In post-traumaticul cerno-arterial lesions were detected. Therapy was carried out with steroids, analgesics and local advanced dressings in vasculitic ulcers.
In patients affected of PAD iloprostev. Infusion was administered daily for a week. In each patient pO2, pCO2, Laser doppler and Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis (LASCA) (Peri Cam PSI System, Perimed Italy) on three Regions Of Interest (ROI) corresponding to the bottom of the wound, periwound area and peripheral area of skin as healthy skin were studied.
In this last group iloprost infusion have reduced PU in perilesional areas and increased PU in the bottom of ulcer. No significative changes were present in vasculitic ulcers after iloprost administration (Figure 1). Local administration of SSD (Surfactant Silver Sulphadiazine) Gel-Dressing was followed by reduction of PUs both in the bottom and periwound areas. Data analysis at basal time high lights a greater amount of PU sin periwound areas (ROI) than in the bottom and check areas.
After SSD-dressing administration a decreased number of PU sin periwound and an increase in bottom area have been observed (Figure 2). Despite the limited number of cases examined, the preliminary data review implies a number of considerations:
a. Imaging by means of laser speckle allows the observation of the ulcer bed in real time and the changes that occur after the administration of vaso active substances.
b. There is a correlation between PUs and oximethric data.
c. Especially in vasculitis patients, even the presence of chronic inflammation of the skin, oxymethry values tend to be hypoxic.
d. After the administration of drugs, achronic inflammation in periwound area persists.
e. Data of Laser-doppler show the presence of vasomotion before and after the administration of SSD-dressing and of iloprost.
Figure 2: Laser speckle examination of a venous ulcer and oxymethric data showing low pO2 in the border of the lesion.
This could be interpreted as the primary cause of the chronicity of the lesion and the presence of elevated levels of MMPs in the exudates and ulcer tissue confirm the state of chronic inflammation.
Even the administration of the SSD-Gel dressing (a transparent gel and which does not alter their fraction of the laser light) LASCA is able to determine (especially in the bottom of the ulcer) the same PUs alterations observed after infusion of iloprost, but it is not yet clear whether this information is related to anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties of the dressing or its own vasoactive properties.
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Citation:Palumbo F P, Failla G, Serantoni S, Ardita G, Gazzabin L, et al. (2019) Microcirculation Evaluation of Leg Ulcers - An Innovative Diagnostic Approach. J Non Invasive Vasc Invest 4: 013.
Copyright: © 2019 Palumbo FP, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.