Gerontology, as the study of aging, is not only an interdisciplinary and intra disciplinary study, but also an international and inter-professional study, to create awareness on the concept among people, throughout the globe. The philosophy of Gerontology is a practical philosophy to explore the nature of humanity itself and to practice learning. Gerontology is a science as well as human philosophy. That is to say, studies of practical application, seeking various ways of life that can help human beings live with peace and tranquility. When the scientific studies are approached globally in various languages and cultures, seeking the true meaning of life people can be of one and the same ideal. Gerontology is also related to Science and Technology.
Gerontology is based on the comprehensive studies of aging, which are not only interdisciplinary and intra disciplinary study, but also international and inter-professional to create awareness on the concept among people, throughout the globe. According to the Association of Gerontology in Higher Education, “Gerontology is the study of the aging processes and of individuals as they grow from middle age through later life. It includes: 1) the study of physical, mental and social changes in older people as they age 2) the investigation of the changes in the society resulting from our aging population, 3) the application of this knowledge to policies and programs”.
Geriatrics is 1) the study of health and disease in later life 2) the comprehensive health care of older persons and the well-being provided by their informal caregiver. Therefore, it must be emphasized that the geriatric medicine is very important aspect of gerontology, as well. This article contains only preliminary, associations about the issue whether gerontology should be developed in the direction of a philosophical discipline in connection with the philosophy of science and technology.
The philosophy of Gerontology is not just philosophy, but also practical knowledge to explore the nature of humanity itself and to apply the learning widely and deeply in topics and issues related to human life span development. The learning requires the collection of information and practical application. Gerontology is science of human philosophy. That is to say, studies of practical application, seeking various ways of life that can help human beings live with peace and tranquility. The word “Gerontology” derived from the book that IIya Metchnikoff wrote, called “the nature of man” in 1903 as follows, “Recognition of the true goal of life, and of science as the only means by which that goal may be attained would group themselves around that, as in former days men were held together by religion. I think it extremely probable that scientific study of old age and of death, two branches of science that may be called gerontology and thanatology, will bring about great modification in the course of the last period of life” . Metchnikoff is known as a zoologist and microbiologist. When the studies are approached globally with various languages and cultures and seeking the true meaning of life and science, people can be one with the same ideal. Gerontology is also related to Science and Technology which is called Gerontechnology [2,3]. It is necessary to develop Philosophy of Gerontology within Science and Technology together. Stanford Encyclopedia introduces Philosophy of Science and Technology as follows: “It may come as a surprise to those fresh to the topic that the fields of philosophy of science and philosophy of technology show such great differences, given that few practices in our society are as closely related as science and technology. Experimental science is nowadays crucially dependent on technology for the realization of its research setups and for the creation of circumstances in which a phenomenon will become observable” . According to wikipedia the phrase "philosophy of technology" was first used in the late 19th century by German-born philosopher and geographer . This paper considers perspective values of Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST) towards advanced future.
Gerontology teaches creative learning focused on the multidisciplinary fields including the interdisciplinary, international and interdisciplinary perspectives. The first approach of learning begins with listening, and learning through the processes of some experiences; by communicating with various people, reading, research and applied practice. It’s considered that the reserve of the knowledge cultivates applied skill and become a universal power as “wisdom”. It means that Gerontology is a creative learning to find out the possibilities. Dr. David Peterson explains Gerontology by using five characters as “HILLS” as follows “Health”, “Intelligence”, “Leadership”, “Love”, and “Service”. He also says that the life grows with happiness when this principle is applied to all people. All 5 categories require the power of “tenderness” and “awareness” . Birren and Schroot introduced A History of Geropshychology in Autobiography that is included a part of Philosophy of Gerontology, as well . In this point, it is important to figure out relationship among Philosophy, Science and humanities. According to the Wikipedia (2018), “Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind and language”. Science (Wissenschaft: Age + Aging) is ‘a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.’ And Humanities (Human Science) is ‘academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. Nowadays, the humanities are more frequently contrasted with natural and sometimes social sciences as well as professional training.’ Philosophy of Gerontology is not only such above Philosophy meaning, but also applied learning and studying process of Science and Humanities. That required not only theoretical studies, but also applicable action for making or to create a life with better aging through applied Science, as well. Philosophy of Gerontology is all age related practical pedagogy, which draws forth the significance of human existence with practical science for applying into Budo for various age persons with various conditions. “Gerontology ” is generally translated as ??? in Japan [26-28]. ? (Rou) means Old. ? ?nen? means Year. ? (Gaku) means science. Even before modern University was established in Japan Ekken Kaibara (1630-1714) introduced Gerontological Concept through the Book of Yojokun [29,30]. It is also translated as “??? (Soureigaku)”. This was originally created by Nippon Care-Fit Education Institute . Ansello addressed on The Clark Tibbitts Lecture, given at the 37th annual meeting of the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education, entitled: What colors would we add? The curriculum palette as follows: “The democratization of aging has spread across the world and the so-called globalization of aging has brought yet another lens to examine what we teach . Under the guidance of Dr. Ryo Takahashi of the nonprofit Nippon Care-Fit Service Association, a number of Americans began collaborating with Southeast Asian colleagues about 2003, with the grand vision of bringing a set of curriculum standards to Japan. Although the overwhelming majority of Japan’s medical schools had established geriatrics departments, there was at the time only one university with an educational gerontology program. Soon invited to help initiate or advance educational gerontology in Tokyo, Okinawa, Andhra Pradesh and Abu Dhabi, I found myself more Marginal Gerontology critically examining core subject matter…. In India our hosts at Andhra University wished to initiate a yoga gerontology program, incorporating not our American concept of yoga as exercise but the sense of meditation, internal communion with a spirit, acceptance rather than resistance. I became aware that our content (subject matter), our methods (research studies) and our values (aging as decline) had limitations. Quantitative studies and descriptive statistics appraise the normative characteristics of groups, the collective of acquired behaviors and lifestyles”. “? (Sou)” in “???” consists of “? (Kura)” and “? (Katana)”. “?” means “path finding” or “pioneering”. “?” has means “sword”, which stands for the action “to open the way”. “? (Rei)” consists of “? (Ha)” and “? (Rei)”. “?” stands for “age”. This originated from the idea that strengthening one’s teeth leads to his/her longevity. “?” is a pictograph that shows people gathering and kneeling down to seek enlightenment. These words show that “??? (Soureigaku = Creating Aging Learning or Study)” is a type of learning in which people come together and teach each other ways of happiness and longevity. Gerontology has inter-disciplinary, inter-professional and inter-national features. Given these factors, we sum up the research, application and applied practice of this learning and call it “??? (Soureigaku)” for Gerontology with philosophical understanding in Japanese. Gerontology is for improving quality of life by knowing individual’s genealogy. Above all things have been related to Family History.
Gerontology is known his/her values who we are, where we are from, where we will go the life after death. That is reason why it is important to know of the History of ourselves. It is important to keep these pioneers, SOUL as we call again, “Kigatsuku” means “an inner spirit to act without being told what to do”. SOUL can be grown by See, Observe, Understand and Listen to learn each other. The philosophy of Gerontology is a practical philosophy to explore a nature of humanity itself and practice the learning. Thus, the learning requires the collecting information and applied practice with Philosophy . Leonardo da Vinci is a great model that implemented it throughout his life . If we got his leaning as an educational approach, it is regarded as fostering of creative personnel for their entire life.
Leonardo da Vinci was born on April 15th, 1452, in the town of Vinci which is 40km north away from Firenze, Italy . The marriage of his father who was a public notary and his mother who is a daughter of farmer were unacceptable in public according to the tradition of marriage at the time. However, Leonardo grew up with profound attachment from his mother. He cultivate his creativity of all things from the natural province because he's deeply attached to the nature. When people think about Leonardo da Vinci, he is best remembered as a painter of "The Last Supper" and "Mona Lisa". But Leonardo also have shown additional ability in architecture, interior decorating, engineering, mathematics, astronomy, weapon, aviation, photo logy, geology, municipal engineering, anatomy, children's literature, philosophy, nutrition, music and theology. He said "It's possible to know everything."
Leonard had an anecdote about the learning related to human in his mid-fifties. A solitary old man aged about 100 was hospitalized at the hospital Santa Maria Nuova. When he visited the hospital, he always heard and learned the hopeful reminiscing in youth by the old man and he witnessed the death of the old man. The story was not over here. He took him in and continued to study the human though the anatomy to explore the mysteries of life as the advanced age . That is to say, he explored “What humanity? What is life? What is health?” under his theme of lifetime learning. In later life, he regretted and apologized to God and humanity that he would die leaving so many unfinished works. On the other hand, he mentioned, "I must be done. I always want to continue being useful existence." before his death . These, his ideas were the contribution to society and really looked like philosophy of Gerontology. It also means that Leonardo was a pioneer as a Gerontologist. Human existence can grow consistently as far as the human seeks something. Leonardo wrote "Iron rusts from disuse; water loses its purity from stagnation... even so does inaction saps the vigor of the mind". He died at Clos Luc, Amboise, France, on May 2nd, 1519 at age 67. JAIST has symbol of the JAIST philosophy in the library. This calls Novum Organum by Francis Bacon.
Francis Bacon was born on 22 January 1561 and died on 9 April 1626. Francis was known as an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator and author. He had served both as an Attorney General and as the Lord Chancellor of England. After his death, he remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution. During the Renaissance, Francis Bacon became one of the first modern authors to reflect on the impact of technology on society. Novum Organum is known as new instrument of science, which was introduced in the title page. The title page of Novum Organum shows a galleon passing between the mythical Pillars of Hercules that stand either side of the strait of Gibraltar which mars the exit from the well-charted waters of the Mediterranean into the Atlantic Ocean. Beacon tried to show that empirical investigator will break out the old scientific ideas and leading to greater understanding of the world and heavens . This tile page was liberally copied from Andrés García de Céspedes published in 1606. The Latin tag across the bottom-Multi pertransibunt & augebitur scientia is taken from the Old Testament, Book of Daniel, Chapter12 Virse4 ‘But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words and seal the book, even to the time of the end: Many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased’ . In other words, it means’ Many will pass through and knowledge will be greater’. There was Philosophy to choose such mission of JAIST where persons had vision for the future.
JAIST is located in Nomi city, Ishikawa prefecture within the Hokuriku region. That is why JAIST is called Hokuriku Advanced Institute of Science and Technology in Japan. Hokuriku means North Lands. Hokuriku regions are located in the northwestern part of Honshu includes the four prefectures of Ishikawa, Fukui, Niigata and Toyama in the main island of Japan. Nomi Town was established with the creation of the modern municipalities system on April 1, 1889 just one year before JAIST was established. Then, Nomi city was established on February 1, 2005 by collaborating three towns such as Neagari yown, Tatsunokuchi town and Terai town. These towns have been influenced by Mount Haku (Hakusan) faith (2,702m High). Haku means white and San means mountain. Mount Haku has been recognized as Sacred mountain from the ancient time even 717AD. Taich? (July 20, 682 - April 20, 767) was directed to consecrate the Mount Haku as the first person to reach the top of the Mount. According to Priest Munehiro Yamazaki in Shirayama Hime Shrine there are four special characters which cannot see in other mountains . The first character is Mount Haku, the oldest ideology of syncretism of God (Kami) and Buddhas . The second characteristic is God of ShirayamaHime, God of Peace for all people. In Ancient Japanese Record, Kojiki God of ShirayamaHime mediated during miscommunicating among God of Izanagi and God of Izanami . The third characteristic in this mountain is known as cleanness not only appearance, but also inside without any garbage by mount climbers. And finally, the fourth characteristic is God of Water which is created by four big rivers such as Tedori River, Nagara River, Shou River, and Kuzuryu River. These four rivers have enriched many people’s lives and have nurtured the soil of high cultural standard . The Mount Haku is the temple of God because of that people to come to worship God by learning experience which is called Shugendo ??? [44,45]. In the 7th century En no Gyoja is widely considered as the patriarch or founder of Shugendo with doctrine. Shugendo literally means "the path of training and testing" or "the way to spiritual power through discipline. Such philosophy was already settled within the JAIST area. JAIST is surrounded by such unaccountable nature and philosophy on the Mount Haku is making action for welfare of people’s peace and happiness. It is important to make three stakes for making three Godhead like principle in academy such as a person who has vision in local community, a person who has a vision in national and international community and a person who vision of universal academic curriculum and leadership. The next section discusses from the three characters who have associate to create JAIST towards the advanced future action [46,47].
JAIST will be celebrating thirtieth anniversary in 2020. It is important to think of the future advancement, but also to go back to the principle in the beginning. JAIST 20th Anniversary repository informed about history of JAIST how it has been established.
There are three key persons who have worked in each role to magnify to this sacred mission. These persons are Mr. Tomonari Matsusaki (1913-1988), Mr. Tominaga Keii (1921-2007) and Mr. Yoshiro Mori (1937- ). Mr. Tominari Matsusaki was mayor of Tatsunokuchi Town from 1964-1988 for 24 years. Mr. Matsusaki was raised in a hot spring ryokan (Japanese Style Hotel) established in 1836. Mr. Tominari studied Applied Chemistry at Tokyo Imperial University and returned to work at his ryokan. It is well known that one of the famous Novelist, Kyoka Izumi (1873-1939) used to stay often at this ryokan . Mr. Matsusaki, as Tatsunokuchi Town Mayor raised hand attract a new concept university and Mr. Yoshiro Mori (Chairman/Representative Director of the Japan-India Association; Prime Minister 2000-2001; Minister of Education 1983-1984) happened to establish JAIST from 1974 up to 1990 [49,50]. Mr. Matsusaki’s philosophy was strong human love and respect. Mr. Matsusaki quoted the following words in 1987, ‘Adult men die, but their villages still remain'. . ‘Judges are mortal for what to know yourself’. Finally, Mr. Tominaga Keii was selected to be the first President of JAIST. Mr. Keii was not only well known chemist, but also a leader in educational administration [52-54].
This paper predicts by reviewing the future visions of JAIST from the author’s point of view after 15 years from 2018. 1) It is important to make statement that JAIST is established as a graduate Institute for making Peace and harmony for all human beings. This institute must have philosophy for collaborative learning approach from youth to aged including k-12 as lifelong span developmental curriculum. 2) Future responsibility has to be kept within the institute towards 15 years in advance likely. It might not have survived as a national university in the past 40 years. The ministry of Education and Science has plan to a combine National and Private Universities. Therefore, it is necessary to educate business oriented entrepreneurs and various field leaders. 3) Developing Globally and Locally. Curriculum may be necessary for involving people in the community for turning out various masters of wining, playing, understanding and practicing arts. In other words, JAIST must have a role to contribute in local and historical fostering human resources. Moreover, JAIST must be a role model to be followed, contributing in the Graduate school style towards other communities and countries, as well. 4) It is important to have a broader perspective of Global Community Center (GCC). GCC may have a role for developing at grass roots by promoting international, interdisciplinary and inter-industrial exchange of culture, science and research though fostering human recourses and human bonding as an international collaborative community Center. This must be fundamental philosophy of JAIST. In other words, it is important to recognize roles and philosophy of Japan, advanced, educational Institute and Technology. Japan has mission to build up peace in the world setting. Advance means not only developing future advanced science and technology, but also digging up ancient wit and wisdom for restoring culture and history. Institute itself has mission to train science and technology to be a leader in the fields, but also it is important to educate MAN with understanding bioethics [55-57]. That means MAN is not only a biological existence, but also a mental, intellectual, spiritual and culturally eternally progressive and growing for leading the world. This is one of the missions and character of JAIST as an original Advanced Institute for various Master of wining (Meijin??), Master of Playing (Tastujin??) and Master of Understanding (Tetsujin??) and Master of Eternal ARTs (Sennin ??) as stated youth is a gift and Age is an Art [58-60].
?JAIST has concluded a Memorandum of Agreement on Double Master's Degree Program with Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar since August 28th in 2017. IIT Gandhinagar is known as one of the twenty-three institutes of Indian Institutes of Technology, which is recognized for its high standard of research all over the world. IIT Gandhinagar was founded in 2008 and is located in Palaj, Gandhinagar, which is one of the oldest living cities in India. Relationship of India and Japan was established in 1903 by former Prime Minister Shigenobu ?kuma, Viscount Moriyoshi Nagaoka, Viscount Eiichi Shibusawa and others to encourage India-Japan friendship. Then, the Japan-India Association was authorized as a foundation by Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1939. Rabindranath Tagore, the first Nobel Prize Winner in Asia was one of the most influential person from India to Japan . With the above concept the author organized the conference at Andhra University in India by inviting Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, Former President of India [62-65].
?In the vision of IIT Gandhinagar quotes from Gitanjali by Tagore as follows: “Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high, where knowledge is free. Where the world has not been broken up into fragments by narrow domestic walls. Where words come out from the depth of truth, where tireless striving stretches its arms toward perfection. Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way into the dreary desert sand of dead habit. Where the mind is led forward by thee into ever widening thought and action. In to that heaven of freedom, my father, Let My Country Awake!” . It is concluded as follows by Tagore from His Book titled Man.
?So does the Upanishads says, “You have to live a hundred years, you must act,” Fulfill your hundred years of life by work, such work as can truly be claimed through belief and result to express the truth of “I am He.” Not by turning up one’s eye-balls and sitting with closed breath and staying far away from man do we gain this Truth.
?This work, this toil is not for earning livelihood. Developing original philosophy of Gerontology with Science and Technology will be the most effective action to bring people to educate and contribute for the future advanced society to society and to the world at large. Using existing resource is the key to success from the ancient to the future from the youth to the old.
I thank Professor Hiroyuki Iida at Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology to encourage me to write of this topic with future advanced vision. I thank President Darryl Macer at American University of Sovereign Nations who has mentored me for learning of the bioethics with philosophy of Gerontology with broadly, widely and deeply. I thank Dr. Chiiho Sano who graduated with Ph.D. from Nara Institute of Science and Technology for sharing her graduate experience.
Finally, I thank to Professor Hiroshi Shibata who has been a mentor to develop such concept of philosophy of Gerontology as Editor of HSOA Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine.
Citation: Takahashi R (2018) Philosophy of Gerontology with Science and Technology: Personal View of Bioethics & Gerontology in Advanced Future. J Gerontol Geriatr Med 4: 019.
Copyright: © 2018 Ryo Takahashi, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.