The review and discussion of harassment on the Internet was the objective of this work. A documentary study was carried out with an intentional selection of sources indexed to repositories such as Dialnet, Latindex, Publindex, Redalyc and Scielo, considering the period from 2010 to 2019, as well as the keywords. A model was specified that included the variables reviewed in the literature, but the research design limited the consultation, debate and composition of the model, suggesting the inclusion of other variables that the literature identifies as inherent to violence among Internet users.
Bullying; Sexting; Stalking; Stashing; Trolling
A review of the literature regarding the study of Internet harassment refers to variables such as; stalking (stalking), stashing (ninguneo), trolling (discrediting), sexting (harassment) and bullying (ridicule). Each one explains the origin, development and consolidation of asymmetric relationships that are not necessarily related to other economic, political, social, cultural or educational differences, but as they are transversal, they widen the gap between victims, stalkers, spectators and promoters .
In this way, a review and discussion is necessary to highlight their relationships and direct their composition towards the exploration, explanation and prediction of the behavior of the actors involved in the harassment through electronic technologies, devices and networks .
However, the literature consulted has focused its attention on the relationship between perpetrators and victims without considering the mediating or moderating function of the spectators, promoters or apologists of Internet harassment .
In the hegemonic analysis of the differences between stalkers and victims, preponderant indicators have been found: bullying, trolling, stashing , sexting or stalking , but a partial and unidirectional analysis between the variables inhibits the observation of harassment as an extensive system of economic differences, political, social, cultural or educational among the parties involved .
It is about the establishment of a diversified agenda in its composition and extension, as well as heterogeneous among its actors. Therefore, the analysis of the relationships between the indicators of Internet harassment opens the discussion around the construction of a common agenda to the interested parties in which the victim and perpetrator are passive and active, specifying their function based on the environment and electronic resources with which they have more than a pathology related to the violent, situational or dispositional nature of the parties involved .
A documentary study was conducted with sources indexed to international repositories such as Dialnet, Latindex, Publindex, Redalyc and Scielo, considering the period from 2010 to 2018, as well as the inclusion of the keywords.
The information was processed based on the Delphi technique which considers rounds of synthesis, qualification, discussion and integration of the differences between expert judges of the topics in order to structure criteria for the interpretation of an expert agenda that compares with the agenda extracted from the literature review .
The synthesis of the data to be discussed in the first round was obtained from the review of the literature, highlighting the indicators: stalking, trolling, stashing, sexting and bullying, but not including reasoning about relationships so that judges will evaluate the content, assigned -1 for unfavorable content to harassment, 0 for unlinked content and +1 for favorable content.
The data were processed in the analysis package for social sciences (SPSS for its acronym in English version 17), and frequencies were estimated from d e them were established hypotheses in order to specify the model.
The model specification is based on the assumptions of the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Theory of Self-efficacy, the Theory of Acceptance of Technology, the Theory of Electronic Consumption and the Theory of Diffusion of Innovations according to which the perceptions of utility, ease, risk, control, efficiency and compatibility directly and indirectly determine the use of an electronic technology or device.
Relationship between perceptual factors and cyberbullying be direct. Or, indirectly through the perception of efficacy and / or the perception of ease.
Direct relationships are estimated by multiple regressions in which seven perceptual variables simultaneously affect cyberbullying. This is because it is considered that an interrelation between the perceptual variables would affect the predictive power of each one on cyberbullying .
The perception of control, as established by the Theory of Planned Behavior, is a factor that, when associated with the intensive use of a technology, mostly affects the planning of an information device .
However, as it is a general perception, as, the Reasoned Action Theory establishes, its predictive power is reduced to its minimum expression since it requires its association with another perceptual factor such as efficiency or ease of use .
Thus, the perception of utility, according to the Theory of Acceptance of Technology, influences to a greater extent if it is linked to the perception of ease of use, but decreases its impact if it is related to the perception of risk as provided by the Theory. of Electronic Consumption. This logic applies to each of the perceptual variables and their probable link between them when anticipating the effects of cyberbullying .
On the other hand, the perception of compatibility is more influential on the use of technology as preached by the Theory of the Diffusion of Innovations since the relationship with another perception would imply a system difficult to match with the lifestyle and intensive use of technology .
In the case of risk perception, the Electronic Consumption Theory points out that its power is more incisive over the use of an electronic device if uncertainty or distrust is not reduced by a perceptual control or utility factor .
Finally, in the case of the perception of efficiency, the Theory of Self-efficacy warns that it has a greater impact on the use of technology if it is associated with the achievement of achievements which is very close to the perception of utility. That is why that the indirect effect of perceived efficiency will be greater than its direct bearing on the use of technology .
In indirect relationships, the effects of perceptual variables obey the same logic of interrelation and determination, but unlike direct relationships, measurement errors have interference with the estimation of an exogenous variable over an endogenous or mediating variable before predict the effects of their association on cyberbullying .
Both systems, the one of direct routes and the one of indirect paths, when being included in the specification model try to predict the cyber bullying considering different interrelation edges between perceptual variables that the state of knowledge warns as fundamental, but they have only been able to establish by routes Direct its predictive power.
In consequence a, l to interrelation between the perception of usefulness, compatibility, control, harassment and impact risk by perceptions of effectiveness and ease, the cyberbullying is adjusted shall to the observed data.
The contribution of the present work to the state of the matter lies in the specification of a model in which two agendas were compared, one of experts who warn asymmetric relations between the parties involved in the harassment, but detached from the literature consulted which highlights the prevalence of risk-prone lifestyles and as a consequence of harassment.
However, the harassment at the time of opening the discussion around its measurement since in view of the diversity of components the weighting of its dimensions and indicators becomes more complex, a balance between the definitions and the features of these .
In the present work it has been discussed that the pre-existing differences between the actors involved such as the perpetrators, the victims, the spectators and the promoters, although it is a reflection of their economic, political, social, cultural or educational asymmetries, so is the Establishment of an agenda that has focused its attention on axes and discussion topics such as harassment seen from pathologies that emerge in the interrelation.
García warns that the harassment is collateral and simultaneous to the use of the Internet since the development of capacities, skills and information resources potentializes the harassment not mediated by a technology, device or digital network .
Precisely, in this reflexive line the present work highlights the relationships between the variables subtracted from a first review of the literature and pointed out in the qualification of expert judges.
García, Hernández, Aguilar and Morales showed that the intensive use of electronic devices and networks increases Internet harassment in relation to other determinants that allude to expectations of achievement, identity, utility, ease and risk .
In fact, the situational factor combined with the dispositional factor, or the intensive use of the Internet added to the skills and knowledge explain the harassment, but only one type of harassment more oriented to the processing of information as a resource for the ridicule of a potential victim more than the observation of relations between the interested parties such as those who search, store, document, process and disseminate information related to bullying .
It is necessary to construct an integral model in which, once the relationships between the variables are specified, it is possible to test the hypotheses in order to contribute to the state of the matter.