Journal of Protein Research & Bioinformatics Category: Biotechnology Type: Research Article

Effect of Fermented Millet Flour Ibyer Supplemented with Ginger Powder on Hematological indices and Body Weight of Wister Albino Rats

Adakole Maria Eji1, Ikya Julius Kwagh-hal1, Girgih Abraham Terna1, Ogori Akama Friday2* and Upev Vincent3
1 Department Of Food Science And Technology, Federal University Of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria
2 Department Of Home Science And Management, Faculty Of Agriculture, Federal University, Gashua, P.M.B.1005 Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria
3 Department Of Veterinary Physiology, Federal University Of Agriculture, Makurdi, Beneu State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author(s):
Ogori Akama Friday
Department Of Home Science And Management, Faculty Of Agriculture, Federal University, Gashua, P.M.B.1005 Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria
Email:ogorifaraday@gmail.com

Received Date: Sep 29, 2020
Accepted Date: Oct 19, 2020
Published Date: Oct 26, 2020

Abstract

In this study, fermented millet flour supplemented with ginger powder were formulated in the ratio 100% millet flour: 0% ginger flour, 95% millet flour:5% ginger flour, 90% millet flour:10% ginger flour, 85% millet flour:15% ginger flour, 80% millet flour:20% ginger flour, 75% millet flour: 25% ginger flour, and 70% millet flour:30% ginger flour respectively for the production of “Ibyer”. The blends were subjected to feeding trial using male wistar albino rats of 3 weeks old, weighing 100g to 130g obtained. They were fed formulated diet prepared from fermented millet flour and ginger powder blends. The hematological analysis showed that packed cell volume ranged from 32 - 54%, white blood cell ranged from 1.87 -7.10x109/L and red blood cell ranged from 4.20 - 6.97 x 1012/L which was within recommended range. The albino rats showed significant increase in body weight throughout the experimental period ranging from 78.67 - 103.80 g. The result from the experimental analysis finally revealed that ‘Ibyer’, A fermented millet flour blended with ginger at ration 85% millet flour:15% ginger flour, 80% millet flour:20% ginger flour,, 75% millet flour:25% ginger flour had better heamatological indices.

Keywords

Albino rat; Body weight; Fermented; ginger flour; Hematology; Millet flour; supplementation

INTRODUCTION

 “Ibyer” is indigenous to the Tiv people in Benue state and has similar characteristics to some gruels in certain localities in Nigeria and Africa, as an example is Eniokwola a porridge eaten by the Idoma people of Benue state [1].Two types of ibyer are consumed based on the method of preparation. The sweet type (Ibyer-i-nyohon), prepared by milling the grain into flour which is reconstituted with water and cooked [2] while the sour type (Ibyer-angen) undergoes fermentation. The powder I for the sour type is reconstituted to form a slurry or paste which is left to ferment overnight thus producing the desired sourness [1]. 

Millet is an important security crop but it is not popular in Nigeria. Millet is an important minor cereal crop with very high nutritional and medicine values. These are attributed to its high polyphenol, dietary fiber, minerals and essential amino acids [3]. Millets lack gluten and can be consumed by people suffering from celiac disease [4]. Some in vivo studies by [5-8], showed significant lowering of blood glucose level by millet based diet when compared to a wheat or rice diet. However, most of the in vivo studies on millets have mainly considered millets products from composite flour. Epidemiological studies indicates that regular consumption of whole grain and their products can protect against the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, obesity, gastrointestinal cancers and atherosclerogenic effects, anti-oxidant and microbial properties and so many other disorders [3,9, 10] reported that millet contain high level of methionine, tryptophan, vitamin B, fiber and minerals such as phosphorus, iron and it contains forty times calcium level more than that found in maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) and contain ten times calcium more than that found in wheat (Triticum estivum L.).Millets are known to have a low glycemic index as suggested by some in vivo studies however all of these studies have mainly focused on millet products from composite flour [6-8]. Starch digestibility studies on the 100% cooked millet flour have been rarely done. Dietary fibre, phenolics and lipids which are mainly lost during decortication may also affect in vitro starch digestibility [11,12]. 

Fermentation can synthesize certain amino acids and increase availability of vitamins [13]. It also sets optimum pH conditions for enzymatic degradation of phytate which is present in millets as complexes with polyvalent cations such as iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium and proteins. The reduction in phytate may increase the amount of soluble iron, zinc and calcium in many folds [14]. Improvement of starch, protein digestibility and sensory properties of food products from fermented and germinated flour has also been reported [15]. 

Ginger can be used fresh, dried, powdered, or as an oil or juice, and is sometimes added to processed foods and cosmetics. It is a very common ingredient in recipes. The unique fragrance and flavor of ginger come from its natural oils, the most important of which is gingerol. Gingerol is the main bioactive compound in ginger, responsible for much of its medicinal properties. It has powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects [16]. 

 The medicinal, chemical, and pharmacological properties of ginger have been extensively reviewed [17]. Over the last few years, interest in ginger or its various components as valid preventive or therapeutic agents has increased markedly, and scientific studies focusing on verification of ginger’s pharmacological and physiological actions have likewise increased [16]. The present study was aimed at assessing the quality of fermented millet (Pennisetum glacum) flour supplemented with ginger (Zingiber officinalis) powder and its effect on haematological indices and body weight of albino rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY

Sample preparation 

The millet grains were sorted and milled into flour using hammer mills. 

Preparation of fermented millet flour 

The method described by [18] was used with slight modifications for the production of millet flour. Pearl millet flour was prepared as shown in (Figure 1). The grains were sorted and cleaned to remove unwanted materials like stones, pebbles and other foreign seeds, before washing with tap water and steeping (72 h). Therefore, the grains were drained, dried, milled and sieved to get whole pearl millet flour. 

Figure 1: Flow chart for the production of millet flour Source: [18]     

Preparation of Ginger powder

Ginger flour will be prepared according to the method of [19] with slight modification as shown in (Figure 2). Fresh ginger roots were sorted by soaking in water to get rid of dirts and to remove unwanted materials, before washing with tap water. The cleaned roots were drained, sliced, and sundried, milled using hammer mill and sieved through 600 μm aperture size.

Figure 2: Flow chart for the production of ginger powder Source: [19] Modified 

Preparation of “ibyer” from fermented millet flour and ginger powder blends 

‘Ibyer’ was produced as described by [20] with slight modification. Each sample weighing 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15,80:20, 75:25, 70:30 (Table 1) of both fermented millet flour and ginger powder were mixed each with 10 ml of distilled water to form a slurry. It was allowed to ferment for 12 h. 200 ml of boiling water was added to the slurry which was heated for 10 minutes with continuous stirring to avoid the formation of lumps. The gruel was allowed to cool to 40oC. The production flow chart is as shown in (figure 3). 

Sample code

Millet

Ginger

716

100

924

95

5

839

90

10

746

85

15

958

80

20

469

75

25

577

70

30

Table 1: Blend Formulation (%) of fermented millet flour supplemented with ginger powder for “ibyer” production.

KEY: 716=M100(Control),924=M95G5,839=M90G10,746=M85G15,958=M80G20,469=M75G25,577=M70G30

Where, M=Millet, G=Ginger 

Figure 3: Flow chart for the production of “ibyer” Source: [20] 

Experimental animals’ model and their maintenance 

Twenty-one (21) healthy wistar albino rats aged 3 weeks (21days), weighing 100g to 130g were obtained from Benue state university, college of health science. Three rats were kept in animal cages in an animal house Department of Home Science and Management, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi. The rats were allowed to acclimatize with the laboratory condition for 7 days in well ventilated cages. They were divided into 7 groups of 3 rats each. Each of the rats was given an identification mark in form of an indelible mark on tail, head and back. During the acclimatization period, the rats were allowed access to food and water ad libitum. (Table 2). 

Sample code

716

924

839

746

958

469

577

Millet

10

9.5

9

8.5

8

7.5

7

Ginger

-

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

Corn starch

70

70

70

70

70

70

70

Vitalyte

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

Rice husk

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

Sucrose

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Total

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Table 2: Blend formulation for experimental feeding.

KEY: 716= M100 (Control), 924=M95G5, 839=M90G10, 746=M85G15, 958=M80G20, 469=M75G25, 577=M70G30.

Where, M=Millet, G=Ginger 

METHODOLOGY

Specimen collection and preservation 

About 1.5-2ml of blood was directly collected through intracardiac puncture with a hypodermic syringe to minimize damage and serum contamination [21] at day 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Application of finger pressure is necessary to dilate the vessel. Blood was withdrawn slowly to prevent the vessel collapsing. The collected blood was split into two aliquot; one portion was of 500 μl in heparinized microhaematocrit tubes for estimation of packed cell volume (PCV), Red blood cell (RBC) and White blood cell (WBC). The rest of the blood was used for serum isolation according to the method of [22].The blood was kept under room temperature in a little slanting condition at 30?C when centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 10 minutes. The supernatant was obtained as serum and kept at 4?C for further determination of serum total protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Total Cholesterol. At the end of the experimental period, each animal was sacrificed by decapitation, and their organs were weighed in terms of size, weight and color. 

Packed cell volume (PCV) 

Blood sample was filled to 75% of capillary tube through capillary action, one end of tube was sealed with plasticine and placed in micro-haematocrit centrifuge and the centrifuge was set at 12 rpm (revolution per minute) for 5 minutes. Thereafter, the centrifuge was spuned and the tubes were removed and the percentage packed volume was read using micro-haematocrit reader according to the method of [23].               

Red blood cells (RBC) 

The red blood cells count was determined by haemocytometry. 

Procedure: Blood was drawn up to 0.5 mark of the RBC pipette and RBC diluting fluid was added to it up to 101 marks. The fluid and blood were mixed well and the first few drops of blood were discarded by holding the pipette vertically. The counting chamber was charged with a drop of blood that had mixed with diluting fluid and the chamber was left undisturbed for few minutes and the four corners of the chamber were visualized under a low power (10x) objective and cells were counted in all the four marked squares. 

Total RBC/L=       (Number of cells counted x diluting factor) / (Area counted x depth of fluid) 

White Blood Cells (WBC) or Total leucocyte count (TLC) 

Total leucocyte count was determined by haemocytometer method 

Procedure: Blood was drawn up to 0.5 mark of the WBC pipette and WBC diluting fluid was added up to 11 mark. The fluid and blood were mixed well and the first few drops of blood were discarded by holding  the pipette vertically. The counting chamber was charged by holding the pipette vertically. The counting chamber was charged with a drop of blood that has mixed with diluting fluid and the chamber was left undisturbed for few minutes and the four corners of the chamber and the middle were visualized under a low power (10x) objective and cells were counted in all the four marked squares. 

Total WBC/L =       (Number of cells x diluting factor) / (Area counted x depth of fluid)

RESULT

Packed cell volume (%) of the experimental albino rats fed fermented millet flour supplemented with ginger powder .The Packed Cell Volume (PCV) in (Table 3) shows that there was a significant increase from the initial to Day 14 in all the experimental groups apart from the control sample which decreased from day 3 to day 28. On the other hand, the PCV after alloxan induction decreased on day 21 in all the experimental groups because of the effect of alloxan monohydrate and increased on day 28 which shows that the experimental animals were utilizing their diet well and the animals were not anaemic during the experiment because their PCV was within the recommended range (28-50%). 

Sample code

Packed Cell Volume (PCV)                                                        After alloxan induction

 

Initial

Day 3

Day 7

Day 14

Day 21

Day 28

716

40.67±1.45a

39.67±3.38a

36.67±3.33a

34.67±2.19b

33.00±1.15a

32.6±0.88a

924

38.33±2.60a

38.93±1.15a

48.67±4.97a

49.67±2.18b

36.00±1.15a

39.3±2.07c

839

39.67±3.84a

40.00±3.06a

49.33±1.20ab

50.67±2.18b

37.70±1.20a

38.6±0.33bc

746

40.00±3.51a

41.33±3.71a

42.00±7.93a

45.33±1.46b

37.70±3.17a

37.7±0.88bc

958

41.00±0.57a

42.33±0.33a

44.00±2.00ab

49.00±1.52bc

35.00±4.33a

38.3±1.20bc

469

41.00±1.52a

41.67±1.20a

50.67±2.33ab

54.00±1.52bc

36.60±0.88a

37.3±1.20bc

577

40.00±2.89a

40.67±1.76a

46.67±2.33ab

47.33±4.97ab

36.60±0.88a

37.3±3.28ab

 Table 3: Packed cell volume (%) of the experimental albino rats fed fermented millet flour supplemented with ginger powder

Values are mean ± SD of 3 replicate determinant, n=3; values bearing different superscripts (a,b,c) in the same row are significantly (p<0.05) different; PCV=Packed Cell Volume

KEY: 716=M100 (control), 924=M95G5, 839=M90G10, 746=M85G15, 958=M80G20, 469=M75G25, 577=M70G30

Where, M=Millet, G=Ginger 

Red blood cells (1012 /L) of the experimental albino rats fed fermented millet flour supplemented with ginger powder 

The (Table 4) shows that Red Blood Cell (RBC) of all the experimental groups significantly increased (p<0.05) from day 3 to day 14 of the normal feeding trial as compared to the baseline of the experiment indicating the animals were healthy. However, there was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the RBC on day 21 after alloxan induction and an increase on day 28 while the control group (716) decreased from the initial to the day 28 All the values were within the recommended range 3-11 x 1012 /L. 

Sample code

Red Blood Cell  (RBC) x 1012 /L                 After alloxan induction

Initial

Day 3

Day 7

Day 14

Day 21

Day 28

716

5.10±0.15a

4.83±0.32a

4.76±0.12a

4.61±0.06b

5.40±0.05c

4.86±0.03b

924

5.23±0.38a

5.36±0.37a

5.97±0.31bc

6.50±0.17b

4.80±0.05b

5.00±0.11b

839

5.83±0.58a

5.93±0.55a

6.77±0.18d

6.97±0.20bc

5.00±0.11bc

5.46±0.14b

746

5.46±0.48a

5.53±0.12a

5.53±0.26a

6.10±0.15c

4.80±0.28b

4.90±0.11b

958

5.10±0.12a

5.10±0.25a

5.46±0.26a

5.83±0.20bc

4.63±0.31ab

4.80±0.41b

469

5.10±0.55a

5.16±0.44a

6.46±0.14cd

6.67±0.24b

4.20±.11a

4.37±0.27a

577

5.53±0.28a

5.64±0.20a

6.30±0.12cd

6.30±0.17b

4.87±0.08bc

4.97±0.35b

Table 4: Red blood cells (1012/L) of the experimental albino rats fed fermented millet flour supplemented with ginger powder.

Values are mean ± SD of 3 replicate determinant, n=3; values bearing different superscripts (a,b,c) in the same row are significantly (p<0.05) different

KEY: 716=M100 (control), 924=M95G5, 839=M90G10, 746=M85G15, 958=M80G20, 469=M75G25, 577=M70G30

Where, M=Millet, G=Ginger

White blood cells (109 /L) of the experimental albino rats fed fermented millet flour supplemented with ginger powder

The White Blood Cells (WBC) in (Table 5) shows a slight increase in all the groups from day 3 to day 14 of the normal feeding trial as compared to the baseline while the control group was unstable. However, there was a significant decrease in WBC on day 21 after alloxan induction in all the groups indicating the animals were diseased. On day 28 after the treatment with the diet, there was a slight increase in white blood cells proliferation showing that the diet had positive effect on the animals. All the values obtained were within the recommended range of 2-9 x 109 /L. 

Sample code

Red Blood Cell  (RBC) x 1012 /L                 After alloxan induction

Initial

Day 3

Day 7

Day 14

Day 21

Day 28

716

5.10±0.15a

4.83±0.32a

4.76±0.12a

4.61±0.06b

5.40±0.05c

4.86±0.03b

924

5.23±0.38a

5.36±0.37a

5.97±0.31bc

6.50±0.17b

4.80±0.05b

5.00±0.11b

839

5.83±0.58a

5.93±0.55a

6.77±0.18d

6.97±0.20bc

5.00±0.11bc

5.46±0.14b

746

5.46±0.48a

5.53±0.12a

5.53±0.26a

6.10±0.15c

4.80±0.28b

4.90±0.11b

958

5.10±0.12a

5.10±0.25a

5.46±0.26a

5.83±0.20bc

4.63±0.31ab

4.80±0.41b

469

5.10±0.55a

5.16±0.44a

6.46±0.14cd

6.67±0.24b

4.20±0.11a

4.37±0.27a

577

5.53±0.28a

5.64±0.20a

6.30±0.12cd

6.30±0.17b

4.87±0.08bc

4.97±0.35b

Table 5: White blood cells (109 /L) count of the experimental albino rats fed fermented millet flour supplemented with ginger powder. 

Values are mean ± SD of 3 replicate determinant, n=3; values bearing different superscripts (a,b,c) in the same row are significantly (p<0.05) different 

KEY: 716=M100 (control), 924=M95G5, 839=M90G10, 746=M85G15, 958=M80G20, 469=M75G25, 577=M70G30

Where, M=Millet, G=Ginger

Body weight (g) of the experimental animals fed fermented millet flour supplemented with ginger powder 

Body weight indicates the normal growth of the rats. The (Table 6) shows that the animals exhibited slight increase in body weight on day 7 to day 14 when the normal feeding trial was terminated in all the groups. However, there was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in body weight on day 21 during alloxan induction. 

There is also a significant increase (p<0.05) in body weight on day 28 showing that the experimental animals were utilizing their diet well and its attributed to the normal growth of the rats. 

Sample code

Body Weights                                      After alloxan induction

 

Initial

Day 7

Day 14

Day 21

Day 28

M100

95.37±5.16ab

96.67±4.33bc

97.40±3.08abc

95.30±2.10b

98.60±3.18a

M95G5

78.67±1.45a

84.56±2.02ab

88.00±1.15abc

87.20±1.10b

87.90±2.12

M90G10

83.00±1.15a

87.67±1.45

89.00±1.25abc

88.40±1.15b

88.80±1.18

M85G15

100.23±6.93c

101.67±4.91

103.80±5.24bc

93.80±3.62b

94.20±3.98a

M80G20

80.33±6.36a

85.00±3.46ab

88.10±2.88abc

87.90±.61b

88.10±1.78

M75G25

89.00±1.53ab

90.67±2.33abc

91.00±1.73

90.10±1.12b

91.42±1.58a

M70G30

79.33±0.88a

84.33±1.76b

84.60±0.00b

83.20±0.00b

84.70±0.98

Table 6: Body weights (g) of the experimental albino rats fed fermented millet flour supplemented with ginger powder.

Values are mean ± SD of 3 replicate determinant, n=3; values bearing different superscripts (a,b,c) in the same rows are significantly (p<0.05) different.

KEY: M100= (Control), M95G5=95%millet flour: 5%ginger flour M90G10=, 90%millet flour : 10%ginger flour, M85G15= 85%millet flour :15%ginger flour, M80G20= 80%millet flour :20%ginger flour, M75G25,= 75%millet flour:25%ginger flour, M70G30 =70%milletflour :30%ginger flour.

Where, M=Millet, G=Ginger 

DISCUSSION

Packed cell volume of experimental albino rats fed fermented millet flour supplemented with ginger powder Packed Cell Volume (PCV) is a test that indicates whether someone is anaemic. Packed Cell Volume is used to measure red blood cell mass. From (Table 4), an increase in red blood cell mass is equivalent to erythrocytosis and a decrease indicating anaemia. Results of the PCV showed that the PCV increased from day 3 to day 14 which indicate that the experimental animals were utilizing their diet well while the PCV in the control sample decreased from day3 to day 28. The PCV reduced at day 21 when alloxan was induced. Alloxan is a toxic chemical which is used for induction of diabetes in experimental animals. At day 28 the PCV increased which indicate the animals were utilizing their diet well. 

Red Blood Cells of experimental albino rats fed fermented millet flour supplemented with ginger powder 

The red blood cell carries oxygen. The result from (Table 4) shows an increase in RBC from day 3 to day 14 indicating the rats were utilizing their diet well. At day 21 when alloxan was induced the red blood cells reduced due to the effect of the alloxan and increased on day 28 because of the ameliorative effect of the diet on the albino rats. The control sample decreased from day 3 to day 28. This report agrees with the report of [24] that worked on haematological parameters of alloxan- induced diabetic rats treated with leaf essential oil of Hoslundia opposite. 

White Blood Cells count of experimental albino rats fed fermented millet flour supplemented with ginger powder 

White Blood Cell (Leucocytes) are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders. Leucocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system. Immunity depends on WBC. The result from (Table 5) shows that the WBC increased from day 3 to day 14. White blood cells increases when there is a problem unlike the PCV and RBC. At day 21 the WBC increased because it’s mobilizing other cells like the monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils to fight. Elevation of WBC in diabetic rats is an indication of inflammation or tissue damage.

At day 28 the WBC revealed the diet was able to function well in the experimental rats. The control sample was unstable because of the absence of ginger in the diet. This report agrees with the report of [24] that worked on haematological parameters of alloxan- induced diabetic rats treated with leaf essential oil of Hoslundia opposite. 

Body weights of experimental albino rats fed fermented millet flour supplemented with ginger powder 

The experimental rats showed an increase in the body weight pattern from the initial state to day 14 including the control group and a slight decrease in body weight when alloxan was introduced on day 21. However, there was significant (p<0.05) increase in body weight in all the groups on day 28.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

All the authors acknowledged the department of Food science and Technology for support in the course of this work.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

There are no conflicts of interest among the authors

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Citation: Mari AE, Kwagh HJ, Terna GA, Akama FO, Vincent U (2020) Effect of Fermented Millet Flour Ibyer Supplemented with Ginger powder on Hematological indices and Body Weight of Wister albinorats J Protein Res Bioinform 2: 013

Copyright: © 2020  Adakole Maria Eji, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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