Journal of Addiction & Addictive Disorders Category: Clinical Type: Short Communication
Predictors of Relapse in Patients with Opioid Addiction during Buprenorphine–Naloxone Maintenance Treatment
- Murat Kuloglu1, Fatih Canan1*, Ahmet Hakki Asik2, Hacer Yalniz3, Nilufer Yalincetin4, Omer Gecici1
- 1 Department Of Psychiatry, Akdeniz University School Of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey
- 2 Psychiatry Clinic, Afyonkarahisar State Hospital, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey
- 3 Alcohol And Substance Addiction Treatment And Research Center, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey
- 4 Alcohol And Substance Addiction Treatment And Research Center, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey
*Corresponding Author:Fatih Canan
Department Of Psychiatry, Akdeniz University School Of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey
Received Date: Dec 15, 2014 Accepted Date: Jan 24, 2015 Published Date: Feb 06, 2015
Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the records of patients who sought and had received any treatment with BNC for opioid addiction in an addiction treatment center during three months period. Relevant data such as socio-demographic variables, drug use history, and opioid use patterns were gathered from the records.
Results: At least three months after BNC maintenance treatment, relapse rate was 66.6%. Patients who were not married and those with an education of less than 8 years were more likely to relapse to opioid use. We also found a relationship between average daily heroin doses and relapse as reflected by illicit opioid use during treatment.
Conclusions: Future research is needed to reveal whether determining these factors and establishing adequate interventions may lead to improved treatment outcomes.
The goal of this study was to evaluate the predictors of three months retention rate with buprenorphine-naloxone treatment among a sample of patients with opioid addiction.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Statistical analysis was done by SPSS statistical software (SPSS for windows 16.0, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The distribution of the data was tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. If distributed normally, data were shown as means and standard deviations and compared with Student’s t-test. Non-normally distributed data were described as median (25th percentile; 75th percentile). The non-parametric Mann–Whitney U test was used to detect differences in non-normally distributed continuous variables between patients who relapsed and those in retention. Age was the only normally distributed variable and all other continuous variables were found to be non-normally distributed. Categorical variables were compared using chi-square test.
The mean (±standard deviation) age of the study population was 25.7 ± 6.7 years. There were only four (6.5%) females in the cohort. Most of the patients were single (78.3%) and unemployed (65%). At least three months after BNC maintenance treatment, relapse rate was 66.6%. The comparison of patients who had relapsed and those who had not relapsed is presented in Table 1.
|Relapse within 3 months
|Retention within 3 months
|Age*||25.3 (5.9)||26.7 (8.2)||0.464|
|Gender**||Female||3 (7.5)||1 (5)||0.714|
|Male||37 (92.5)||19 (95)|
|Marital status**||Single||35 (87.5)||12 (60)||0.020|
|Married||5 (12.5)||6 (30)|
|Education**||5 years||5 years||0||0.017|
|8 years||19 (47.5)||16 (80)|
|11 years||12 (30)||2 (10)|
|>11 years||1 (2.5)||2 (10)|
|Employment status**||Employed||14 (35)||7 (35)||0.616|
|Unemployed||26 (65)||13 (65)|
|Duration of opioid use prior to treatment**||< 1 year||3 (7.5)||5 (25)||0.173|
|1-3 years||7 (17.5)||4 (20)|
|4-5 years||14 (35)||3 (15)|
|>5 years||16 (40)||8 (40)|
|Comorbid cannabis use||Yes||7 (17.5)||5 (25)||0.494|
|No||33 (82.5)||15 (75)|
|History of suicide attempt||Yes||10 (25)||2 (10)||0.171|
|No||30 (75)||18 (90)|
|Age of first heroin use***||21 (16;23)||21.5 (16.5;24.8)||0.349|
|Average daily heroin dose prior to treatment (g/day)***||0.9 (0.4;1)||1 (0.8;3)||0.029|
Table 1: Comparison of patients with relapse and retention.
*Mean (standard deviation), Student’s t-test; **Number (percentile), chi-square test ***Median (25thpercentile; 75th percentile), Mann–Whitney U test.
Relapse rates during BNC treatment have been reported to vary significantly ranging from 13% to 40.8% in 3 months [8-10]; 39.6% to 51.6% in 6 months [11-14]; and 21.7% to 25% in 12 months period [15,16]. When compared with previous findings, we observed a relatively high relapse rate within 3 months in our study. This finding may be interpreted by the relatively short time of experience with BNC treatment in Turkey. High relapse rates in BNC treatment warrants further evaluation of predicting factors associated with relapse.
Only a few studies have investigated the factors predicting relapse in BNC maintenance treatment. Tkacz et al.,  have found that none of the socio-demographic features noted at baseline were predictive of relapse in 3 months follow up in BNC treatment. Ferri et al., , evaluating the chart review of 62 patients with opioid addiction, have shown that patients with comorbid anxiety disorders, active benzodiazepine use, or active alcohol abuse, were significantly more likely to relapse. In another study , however, higher rate of baseline depression was found to be associated with treatment compliance. Buprenorphine has been shown to be effective in treatment-resistant depression [17,18]. Thus, patients with depressive symptoms may benefit from BNC treatment and this may enhance treatment motivation. Moreover, the records of 69 US veterans who were receiving BNC treatment for opioid use disorder were evaluated and patients with a comorbid psychiatric disorder were found more frequently to be noncompliant to treatment . Additional factors predicting relapse were comorbid benzodiazepine or cannabis use . In our study, however, comorbid cannabis use was not associated with relapse.
Several limitations have to be considered when interpreting the findings of the present study. First, the retrospective design of the study may hinder establishing causality. Second, the study sample was relatively small to draw definite conclusions. Third, the follow up period was relatively short (3 months) and our findings do not shed light on long term results. Also, we did not conduct power analyses to calculate sample size.
Our results suggest that patients who were not married and those with an education of less than 8 years were more likely to relapse to opioid use. We also found a relationship between average daily heroin dose and relapse during treatment. The reason for this finding may indicate inadequate BNC dose among heroin dependent patients who use higher doses. Future research is needed to reveal whether determining these factors and establishing adequate interventions may lead to improved treatment outcomes.
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Citation:Kulo?lu M, Canan F, A??k AH, Yaln?z H, Yal?nçetin N (2015) Predictors of Relapse in Patients with Opioid Addiction During Buprenorphine-Naloxone Maintenance Treatment. J Addict Addictv Disord 2: 005.
Copyright: © 2015 Murat Kuloglu, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.