Journal of Aquaculture & Fisheries Category: Aquaculture Type: Review Article
Fisheries, Aquaculture and Coastal Water Developments
*Corresponding Author:Gilbert Barnabé
Faculty Of Sciences, University Of Montpellier, Montpellier, France
Received Date: Jan 22, 2018 Accepted Date: Feb 14, 2018 Published Date: Feb 28, 2018
We propose the limitation of fisheries, the expansion of aquaculture, restocking and stock enhancement trough hatchery proliferation, to produce more aquatic food. Multiplication of artificial reefs, filter feeders and algae on long lines, of marine protected areas in coastal waters, allows also to reduce chemical and plastic pollutions and limit water acidification. All these improvements are sometimes better valued by tourism and leisure activities than by professional fishing and gives an increased economical value to all aspects to these environments.
Interference, synergy or competition between aquaculture and fisheries relate to the same living aquatic resources, but they are not the only way to value and exploit marine ecosystems. Ecological developments are the other way (maritime transport, marine energy and mineral resources been excluded).
FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE
For some countries, such as Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the USA, the strategies are based on the concept of Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY), i.e., the amount that can be harvested on a long term . These modern fisheries management strategies are a precautionary approach to biomass . Cod stocks are recovering in Canada after two decades of fishing bans , but this approach is far from being implemented everywhere. With a production of ≈ 91 million tons, fisheries can be compared to the primary production of the ocean (60 billion tons of C and 600 billion tons fresh weight, according to Irigoien et al. : The fish caught represents less than 1/6,000 of primary production. According to the same work, the Lantern fish biomass (no catch) of the twilight zone (200-1000 m) must be multiplied by 10 and reach 10 billion tons, or 1.3 t of fish per human on Earth!
Conversely, juveniles from the wild can be grown in cages (capture based aquaculture) for tuna and mullets for example in the Mediterranean . These interactions between fisheries and aquaculture have been summarized . Fishmeal from industrial fishing is used for growing caged fish, but this dependence decreases by incorporating soymeal. Trujillo et al.,  lists 20,976 sea bass and gilthead sea-bream cages on the Mediterranean coast, using data from Google Earth. About 90% of the algae and oysters, 80% of the mussel’s world productions are of aquaculture origin. Here again, the offspring caught at sea are often used.
COASTAL WATERS DEVELOPMENTS
This compromise between human use and the conservation of natural ecosystems joins the concept of sustainable development. Such developments have already existed for a long time: Salt marshes, “Claires” for oysters from Marennes-Oléron (France), “Valli” in Italy, “Tambaks” in Asia, etc. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are a form of development. They are not synonymous with integrity or maintenance and should be seen as a form of economic development .
ECONOMIC VALUE OF COASTAL WATERS AND OCEANS
• Provisioning services: Sea food- Sea water- Raw materials- Biodiversity- Medical- Ornamental
• Regulatory services: Air purification (50% of O2 production, 30% CO2 absorption)- Climate regulation (thermal, rains, clouds…)- Waste and pollution removal (dust, dimethyl sulfide, breakdown of pollutants, filtering of water…)- Disturbance prevention
• Habitat Services: Life cycle maintenance- Recreation (SCUBA diving, spear fishing, recreational fishing, beach- Combing, coastal tourism
• Cultural & Amenity Services: Inspiration- Cultural heritage and identity- Sea-scape (like open blue water, reef- scape) etc.,
Hoegh-Guldberg et al.,  estimate the capital value of the oceans at $24 trillion and they would bring in $2420 billion/year via:
• Direct production (fishing, reefs, algae, etc.): $690 billion
• Trade and maritime transport: $520 billion
• Indirect production (tourism, recreation): $780 billion
• Carbon absorption: $430 billion
Torres and Hanley  conducted a comprehensive review of these economic evaluations. We learn both the estimated value of a fish taken by the amateur fisherman (£13), the value of a dive (£70) and that of a beautiful point of view on a port: It increases the value of a 2.95% property in Hong Kong ($15,000); for a small point of view the loss will be 2.18%. The role of climate in the oceans is not evaluated, but can it be?
If coastal waters concentrate 80% of the marine production, the ports are there, and these richer waters absorb more carbon, but now, coastal tourism and leisure constitute the 1st activity of the world economy providing 9 to 12% of the world’s population with 1 in 10 jobs worldwide . Along with fisheries and aquaculture, one of UNWTO’s goals is “life below water… to sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems from pollution, as well as address the impacts of ocean acidification.”
PROPOSALS FOR ECOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN COASTAL WATERS
We made our modest contribution to this collective work, but also practiced other activities such as spear fishing for fun (Figure 1) or competition, studied biology of fish, open sea aquaculture (Figure 2), artificial reefs (Figure 3). With the contribution and help of many colleagues, we have editéd or writen books in the field of aquaculture or développements [15,18,27-30].
Figure 1: Spear fishing of grouper (Epinephelus marginatus) in the eighties, near Alméria, South of Spain.
LIMITATION OF FISHERIES
Pisanty  reports drastic measures (restriction of the right of access, hight taxes, mesh nets of 70 mm, etc.) set up for the successful rehabilitation of fishing in the Bardawil lagoon (Mediterranea).
Positive interventions are proposed as part of the ecosystem approach to fisheries :
• Limitation of fleet capacity
• Limitation of fishing effort
• Avoid habitat degradation and build new ones
• Repopulation and development of stocks of fingerlings
• Reduction of some populations
• Introduction of species (e.g., top snail and scallops)
So, depending on the local economic context, fishing for food should be limited or even prohibited in some coastal waters, for respect for fish and the environment, when tourism and leisure can enhance the economic value of this ecosystem by snorkeling, diving, recreational fishing or water sports. Damages of trawling on the benthos and pelagic life imposes its total abolition in coastal waters.
To date, only 0.6% of the ocean surface is non-capture areas. Hoegh-Guldberg O , reports that the expected benefits for ecosystem services with a 10% expansion of no-capture MPAs in the oceans are estimated at between $622 and $923 billion over the 2015-2050 period. The economic rate of return would be between 9 and 24% . Among other reported examples , the estimate of the benefits associated with the use of the Baltic Sea in current environmental conditions is close to $15 billion/year. For the Great Barrier Reef they ranged from US $700 million to US $1.6 billion and the recreational value associated with is worth US $18 to US $40 billion. White and Costello , proposed to close the high seas to fishing, but it would be better to close the coastal waters where many species breed.
THE HATCHERY AND THE MASTERY OF RECRUITMENT
Figure 4: Evolution of scallop catches in the Sarufutsu Coastal Sea (Japan) from 1940 to 2011 (adapted from Anon , completed with Seafish .
Use of artificial reefs
In Asia, Achoi  calculates that they increase fish production from 60 to 2000%.
Japan has 20 million m3 on 6400 sites covering 1800 km2 to create new fishing grounds. The catch would vary from 5 to 20 kg/m3/year (with aggregation).
The wrecks of boats, planes, metro, immersed by the United States are only a fraction of their artificial reefs. The submerged part of the oil platforms has been estimated at 180 million m3. The highest known annual production of fish biomass was showed on these oil platform by Claisse et al.,  27 times greater than for coral reefs. North Carolina (United States) boasts of the number of sunken shipwrecks: “There are so many fish that you can hardly see the wreck through the fish”.
The economic impact (recreation and tourism) of the reefs is enormous. There are 2,878 artificial reefs in Florida generating economic activity of $3.1 billion . For Texas, this activity generated revenue of $3.7 billion in 2011 . For comparison, the French professional maritime fishery posted total sales of $1.054 billion in 2012 .
Installing filter feeders
• San Francisco Bay: 0.7 day (various species)
• Asko area (Baltic Sea): 0.3 day (mussels)
• Eastern part of the Wadden Sea: 0.5 day (mussels)
• Brest harbor: 2.8 days (various species)
• Thau pond: 2.8 days (suspended oysters and mussels) for 340 million m3
Bivalves are used for bottom culture (mussels, oysters, scallops) even in rough waters and constitute a living bottom. Alongside Atlantic states, empty oyster shells are spread on soft bottom  and seeded with oyster seed Crassostrea virginica to restore exploited oyster stocks and habitats. They filter water for clarity, limiting erosion and being the only hard substrates for flora and fauna (ecosystem services).
Suspended mussel production reaches 250 t/ha/yr (highest livestock production) in the sheltered Rias of Galicia
(Spain), but 20 to 40 t/ha/yr on average elsewhere. The filtered plankton is brought by tides and currents, but what a practical advantage! The use of flexible long lines has allowed the cultivation of oyster, mussels and scallops on ropes 10 to 15 m long, on a very large scale. The water depth can exceed 60 m. We have skimmed these aspects of coastal zone aquaculture and open sea . Ögmundarson et al.,  reviewed the types of long line and anchors used at open sea in 32 countries.
These filterers are also purifiers: The filtering capacity of the mussels is used to clear the Mersey estuary in Liverpool , the tropical mussels to purify the discharges of shrimp ponds in South- East Asia, etc. Richards et al.,  point out that mussel growth is one of the highest in the world on the Gulf of Mexico (50 mm long in 6 to 8 months) where they sometimes form clusters 1.2 m thick.
We propose to use mussel larvae, barnacles larvae or other fouling species to sink the plastics of the great “garbage” patches of the oceans. These invertebrates can spawn under natural factors that stimulate ovulation and spawning. A simple thermal shock in controlled conditions, a strong shaking, triggers for example the spawning of the mussels. Some tons of mussels taken by expedition vessels or installed under drifting rafts (like in rias) will produce hundreds of billions of larvae. These larvae will settle on the only solid substrates available in open water: Plastics. Even with slow growth (poor waters), the apparent weight of these filter feeders will sink the plastic particles to the abyss.
To generalize the use of the long lines in the coastal waters would make possible harvesting the tiny phytoplankton (primary production). This harvest can be used either for the food production or to clean up the waters or fix the CO2 in the shells . This technique can also be used in the context of climate engineering to limit water acidification.
Installation of seaweeds
Production in dry weight ranges from 10 to 50 t/ha/year, but 100 t/ha/year for the Ulva. Crops are grown on long lines, on horizontal nets (but just below the surface and in shallow waters) or on hard bottom. Sargassum, often considered as pests are cultured in South Korea . Algae installation downstream of fish cages allows multitrophic aquaculture.
Production (wet weight) was 28.5 million tonnes of seaweeds and other crops grown (99% in Asia), according to the FAO . The potential of culture is enormous in the West, but limited by several problems (low value because no tradition of culture and consumption, administrative problems, access to sites…)
Extension of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
Increased production of aquaculture and fisheries, conservation and improvement of ecosystems and increased economic values are just one aspect of coastal water management: The cultivation of filtering species and algae, can also reduce chemical and plastics pollutions, fix the CO2 to limit water acidification. Artificial reefs have been used to allow the natural fixation of filterers that purify the waters . Capacities for water treatment against pollution are as gigantic as their biological potential. Oceans are also the great thermal controller of the climate (physical pump but also biological pump of carbon).
Depending on the economic context, these improvements can be valued by tourism and recreation or fisheries or both at the same time, but all users of these ecosystems insist on the need to eliminate pollution.
Many problems still remains: Ramade  clearly expresses the opinion of many ecologists: “The demographic (human) explosion is, in fact, the most gigantic ecological disaster that our species is facing; it is the source of most of the others”. The collapse of our civilization is predicted by Oreskes and Conway . They explain that the causes are known (CO2 and pollution), but that we are unable to act on what we know and stop it. The authors show that the know- how and technological capacity of a transition exist, but that the available technologies will not be implemented in time. The cause would be the compartmentalization of sciences, incapacitating scientists locked in their specialties.
But all the old predictions have not been verified (fishery production, ozone hole, infinite human population, disasters, etc.). Scientific ecology must extend its findings from proposals to action, to protect and value the ocean. Action becomes the missing dimension of ocean research.
- Irigoien X, Klevjer TA, Rostad A, Martinez U, Boyra G et al. (2014). Large mesopelagic fishes biomass and trophic efficiency in the open ocean. Nat Commun 5: 3271.
- Hartline BK (1980) Coastal upwelling: Physical factors feed fish. Science 208: 38-40.
- Barnabé G (1996) L'exploitation des ressources vivantes marines; changer de stratégie. I Halieutique et Aquaculture. L'Année biologique, 4e série, 35: 163-183.
- Barnabé G (1996) L’exploitation des ressources vivantes marines; changer de stratégie: II L'aménagement des ressources aquatiques. L'Année biologique , 4e série, 35: 184-202.
- GLOBEC (2010) Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics, GLOBEC International, Plymouth, UK.
- FAO (2010) Gestion des pêches. FAO Directives techniques pour une pêche responsable. FAO Rome, Italy.
- Ye Y, Cochrane K, Bianchi G, Willmann R, Majkowski J. et al. (2013) Rebuilding global fisheries: the world summit goal, costs and benefits. Fish and Fisheries 14: 174-185.
- FAO (2016) The state of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. FAO, Rome, Italy.
- Hoegh-Guldberg O (2015) Reviving the Ocean Economy: The case for action. WWF, Gland, Switzerland.
- NOAA (2006) Fishery glossary. National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Maryland, USA.
- Future Ocean (2013) Getting stock management right. In: The future of fish-The fisheries of the Future. World Ocean Review 5: 94-129.
- Rose GA, Rowe S (2015) Northern cod comeback. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 72: 1789-1798.
- Barnabé G (1990) Rearing bass and gilthead bream. In: Barnabé G (ed.). Aquaculture. Ellis Horwood Publishing Limited, New York, USA. Pg no: 647-683.
- Nash CE, Novotny AJ (1995) Production of aquatic animals. Elsevier, Amsterdam, USA.
- Barnabé G, Dewavrin G (2015) Mediterranean Mariculture. Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences. Pg no: 532-536.
- Barnabé G (2016) Ecologie et aménagement des eaux marines. Editions Lavoisier, Paris, France.
- Trujillo P, Piroddi C, Jacquet J (2012) Fish farms at sea: The ground truth from Google earth. PLoS One 7: 30546.
- Michael RG (1987) Managed aquatic ecosystems. Ecosystems of the World, Elsevier, Amsterdam, USA.
- Parent S (1990) Dictionnaire de l’environnement. Broquet Inc, Ottawa, Canada.
- UICN (1980) Stratégie mondiale de la conservation. La conservation des ressources vivantes au serviced développement durable. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
- Böhnke-Henrichs A, Baulcomb C, Koss R, Hussain SS, de Groot RS (2013) Typology and indicators of ecosystem services for marine spatial planning and management. J Environ Manage 130: 135-145.
- Rogers AD, Sumaila UR, Hussain SS, Baulcomb C (2014) The high seas and us: Understanding the value of high-seas ecosystems. Global Ocean Commission.
- Torres C, Hanley N (2016) Economic valuation of coastal and marine ecosystem services in the 21stcentury: An overview from a management perspective. Universitat de les Illes Balears 75: 1-218.
- UNWTO (2017) Annual Report 2016. The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), Madrid, Spain.
- Barnabé G (1990) Aquaculture. Ellis Horwood, New York, USA.
- Barnabé G (1994) Aquaculture, Biology and Ecology of Cultured Species. Ellis Horwood Publication, New York, USA.
- Barnabé G, Marinaro JY, Charbonnel E, Francour P, Ody D (2000) Artificial reefs in France: Analysis, assessments and prospects. In: Jensen A, Collins K, Lockwood A (eds.). Artificials Reefs in European Seas. Chapman and Hall, London. Pg no: 167-184.
- Barnabé G, Barnabé-Quet R (2000) Ecology and management of coastal waters. The Aquatic Environnment. Springer, London, UK.
- Briquet-Laugier JC, Chancollon O, Cottalorda JM, Francour P (2007) Versune évaluation économique du mérou en Méditerranée? In: Francour P, Gratiot J. (eds). 2nd Symposium on Mediterranean Groupers. Nice, France.
- BBC (2011) Shark fishing banned in the Bahamas. BBC, London, UK.
- Pisanty S (1981) The fishery and management of the hypersaline lagoon of Bardawil. In GFCM, Management of living resources in the Mediterranean coastal area. Stud Rev Fish Counc Mediterr, 58: 35-73.
- Reuchlin-Hugenholtz E, McKenzie E (2015) Aires marines protégées: Un bon investissement pourlasanté des océ WWF, Gland, Switzerland.
- White C, Costello C (2014). Close the High Seas to Fishing? PLoS Biol 12: 1001826.
- SCORE (2016) Science consortium for ocean replenishment. SCORE.
- Anon (1990) Working towards equalized income in a fishing village. Fishery Journal 34: 6-7.
- Seafish (2013) Responsible sourcing guide: Scallops. SEAFISH 3: 1-13.
- Foster KL, Steimle FW, Muir WC, Kropp RK, Conlin BE (1994) Mitigation potential of habitat replacement: Concrete artificial reef in delaware bay - preliminary results. Bulletin of Marine Science 55: 2-3.
- Achoi J (2015) Super-men told to monitor fish resources closely. Borneo Post Online, Sabah, Malaysia.
- Claisse JT, Pondella DJ, Love M, Zahn LA, Williams CM, et al. (2014) Oil platforms off california are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111: 15462-15467.
- Huth B, Morgan A, Burkart C (2015) Measuring Florida artificial reef economic benefits: A synthesis. Florida Artificial Reef Summit, Clearwater Beach, Florida.
- Gaskill M (2014) Analyzing artificial reefs. Texas Parks and Wildlife, Austin, Texas, USA.
- Ifremer (2014) Données économiques maritimes françaises. 1 Les produits de la 1.1. Pêches maritimes. Ifremer, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France.
- Smaal AC, Prins TC (1993) The uptake of organic matter and the release of inorganic nutrients by bivalve suspension feeder beds. In: Dame RF (ed.). Bivalve fillter feeders. Springer, Berlin, Germany. Pg no: 271-298.
- Coen lD, Hadley N, Shervette V, Anderson B (2011) Managing oysters in South Carolina: A five year program to enhance/restore shellfish stocks and reef habitats through shell planting and technology improvements. Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA.
- Ögmundarson O, Holmyard J, Pordarson G, Sigursson F, Gunnlaugsdottir H (2011) Offshore aquaculture farming - Report from the initial feasibility study and market requirements for the innovations from the project. Skýrsla Matís.
- Phelps HL (2005) Use of freshwater mussels to improve water quality within the reflecting pool at constitution gardens. Report to the National Park Service, Washington DC, USA. Pg no: 8.
- Richards JB, Culver CS, Fusaro C (2009) Shellfish Harvest as a Bio fouling Control. Strategy on Offshore Oil and Gas Platforms. The Ecology of Marine Wind Farms: Perspectives on Impact, Mitigation, Siting and Future Uses, 8th Annual Sea Grant Science Symposium, New Jersey, USA.
- Filgueira R, Byron CJ, Comeau LA, Costa-Pierce B, Cranford PJ, et al. (2015) An integrated ecosystem approach for assessing the potential role of cultivated bivalve shells as part of the carbon trading system. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 518: 281-287.
- Institute of Food Technologists (2015) Ocean holds the key to superior nutrition and sustainability. Science Daily, Maryland, USA.
- Redmond S, Kim JK, Yarish M, Pietrak M, Bricknell I (2014) Culture of Sargassum in Korea: Techniques and potential for culture in the U.S. Maine Sea Grant Publications. Orono, Canada.
- Bartol IK (1994) Intertidal oyster reef as a tool for enhancing settlement, growth, and survival of the oyster Crassostrea virginica. Shellfish Res 13: 280-281.
- Ramade F (1994) Ecologie, démographie et développement. Plein sud 15: 6-7.
- Oreskes N, Conway E (2014) The collapse of western civilization: A view from the future. Columbia University Press, New York, USA.
Citation:Barnabé G (2018) Fisheries, Aquaculture and Coastal Water Developments. J Aquac Fisheries 2: 006.
Copyright: © 2018 Gilbert Barnabé, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.