Journal of Dairy Research & Technology Category: Agriculture Type: Research Article
Frequent Supply of Adulterated Milk at Southern Zone of Sindh, Pakistan
- Ghulam Shabir Barham1*, Muhammad Khaskheli1, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro2, Zaheer Ahmed Nizamani3, Atta Hussain Shah1, Gul Bahar Khaskheli1
- 1 Department Of Animal Products Technology, Faculty Of Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan
- 2 Institute Of Food Sciences And Technology, Faculty Of Crop Production, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan
- 3 Department Of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty Of Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author:Ghulam Shabir Barham
Department Of Animal Products Technology, Faculty Of Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan
Received Date: Mar 01, 2018 Accepted Date: Apr 04, 2018 Published Date: Apr 23, 2018
Most of the milk from production to ultimate consumption in the Sindh province of Pakistan is marketed under traditional pattern, whereby informal channels are directly involved in unethical activities of adulteration in market milk. The emergence of these activities renders the milk unwholesome and inferior in quality that may create health hazards for consumers. In this regard, 300 market milk samples from different milk marketing channels at three urban cities (Karachi, Thatta and Badin) of southern zone of Sindh province were screened for various adulterants. Among all three urban cities of southern zone the extent of water in market milk samples was comparatively (P?0.05) high and with salicylic acid the low, while with detergent at second top followed by with rice flour, cane sugar, starch, caustic soda, sodium chloride, formalin, skimmed milk powder, urea, hydrogen peroxide, vegetable oil, glucose, ammonium sulfate, boric acid, arrowroot, dalda ghee, sorbitol and hypochlorite. The freezing point of milk sampled from retail, middleman and milk collector level at Badin and Thatta was noticed markedly (P<0.05) high towards water compared to milk sampled from Karachi, similarly, the effect of all milk selling mediators mainly retailer, middleman and milk collector in Thatta and Badin cities of southern zone of Sindh was dominant (P<0.05) on water adulteration in milk as compared to processor and producer at Karachi city of southern zone of Sindh, Pakistan.
Adulterants; MAT Kit; Milk; Pakistan; Sindh; Southern zone
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Figure 1: Flow chart showing the pattern of milk sampling from various intermediaries at different urban cites of southern zone of Sindh, Pakistan.
Qualitative detection of adulterants
Detection of Skimmed Milk Powder (SMP)
Detection of vegetable oil
Detection of dalda ghee
The data was analyzed through statistical procedure of analysis of variance (Factorial ANOVA) to observe the significant differences among the variables and in case of the significant differences appeared among the means; the Least Significant Difference (LSD) test at 5% level of probability was applied. In this context the computerized statistical package i.e. Student Edition of Statistix (SXW), Version 8.1 (Copyright 2005, Analytical Software, USA) was approached.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Percent of milk samples deteriorated with various adulterants at Southern zone of Sindh province
Legends: AS = Ammonium Sulfate,H2O2 = Hydrogen Peroxide, NaCl = Sodium Chloride and SMP = Skimmed Milk Powder
LSD (0.05) = 8.4718
SE± = 4.1848
Freezing point and extent of extraneous water in market milk handled by different milk selling mediators at southern zone of Sindh, Pakistan
|Urban cities||Freezing point of milk samples (°C)|
LSD (0.05) = 0.0474SE± = 0.0241
Extent of extraneous water in market milk handled by different milk selling mediators at southern zone of Sindh, Pakistan
|Urban cities||Extent of extraneous water (%)|
LSD (0.05) = 8.7721
Table 2: Extent of extraneous water in milk samples collected from different milk selling mediators at Karachi, Thatta and Badin cities of Southern zone of Sindh, Pakistan.
*Means with different letters in same row and column varied significantly from one another.
Raw milk marketing from production up to consumption level at southern zone of Sindh province of Pakistan observed to be based on traditional systems, where informal channels were involved in morally wrong practices of adulteration and among these, milk retailer found to be involved more followed by middleman, milk collector, processor and producer. Among all three urban cites of southern zone particularly at Thatta and Badin, the trend of freezing point of milk samples collected from retailer, middleman, milk collector, processor and producer was intimidating towards water and the extent of extraneous water adulteration in milk noted more contrast to that of Karachi city of southern zone.
Authors are really acknowledged the most precious and important role of Higher Education Commission (HEC) Islamabad, Pakistan for awarding the Indigenous 5000 Ph.D Fellowship for this work and made it possible to complete Ph.D degree. The monetary assistance from HEC is a great contribution for promoting the research in Pakistan.
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Citation:Barham GS, Khaskheli M, Soomro AA, Nizamani ZA, Shah AH, et al. (2018) Frequent Supply of Adulterated Milk at Southern Zone of Sindh, Pakistan. J Dairy Res Tech 1: 002.
Copyright: © 2018 Ghulam Shabir Barham, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.