Youth in Mexico is undergoing a stage of employment, education and distant from their referents from other OECD countries technology. In education, enrollment is greater proportion to their number of young people in the State of Mexico followed by the Federal District. It is possible to see that the high school level is higher in reference to others or Veles. This implies that the degree of skill is low, but opens the training opportunity which has been identified as a key determinant of the quality of working life.
Although there is an extensive enrollment in technical training, opportunities for sex are similar, although at the top level the trend favors the male. This means that the physical differences have been reduced to a minimum when the labor market, but knowledge management is geared for male as the National Research System levels II and III are more occupied by men. Although the State of Mexico has a greater increase in access to media early childhood education, basic and, on the upper level and graduate is the Federal District which offers more options with respect to other organizations.
It highlights the state of Nuevo Leon as second instance in terms of opportunities for professional and specialized training. This means that when establishing criteria for quality of life perception of students of Nuevo Leon have a greater perspective student of the State of Mexico or any other different from the Federal District entity.
Coverage, absorption and approval of some degree of studies are indicators of educational quality and therefore quality of life. The Federal District, Nuevo Leon and Coahuila stand out as the states with the highest values for all three indexes; however access to broadband is lower in Mexico compared to other countries.
While Korea, Norway and Denmark lead the ICT access, Mexico is lagging behind in terms of broadband penetration which impacts on its education system and quality of life even more young people than any other group established by age. While the countries with the highest broadband coverage set as the main economic activity productive information processing by a computer, Mexico focused workforce of their youth in customer services and this may encourage their purchasing power is minimal with respect to other OECD countries. Mostly young people in Mexico receive between one and two minimum wages (28.8%) followed two and three salaries (22.3%) and three to five salaries (15.4%).
The workday is not only meager in terms of purchasing power also accounts for more than 40 hours established by the ILO and reaches an average of 8 hours more than international standards (43.2%) and in other cases over eight hours (30.8%). In short, education, technology and employment are essential factors to explain the quality of life of young people in Mexico because it is objective indicators where perception is reduced to a minimum.
However, the quality of life also involves a subjective component. Both dimensions, objective and subjective are complementary to the analysis of the quality of life of young people in Mexico.
The precise purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between the theoretical and conceptual to explain the quality of life in students of a public university in the State of Mexico factors. The answer to the research question can be explained des a comprehensive theoretical framework in which the theories not only complement the relationships among the factors proposed, but also integrate combinations in a manner favorable to the development or oriented to their detriment.
Employment is assumed as the cost of rent capacity. A substantial increase in worker skills represents an increase of their income. Thus, specialization and qualification of employee promotes an exponential cost of time when their skills are employed . Referring to the perceived resources, capabilities extol its value when a shortage is observed, although the abundance is also a use of skills to configure a system, the shortage seems to merit greater value to management capabilities, management and optimization. In relation to life satisfaction, capabilities are represented as a development tool in which work, family and personal satisfaction is included, main indicators of life satisfaction.
According to the Theory of Human Capital (HCT), freedom of choice is the determining factor of resources and demands an individual perceives when making a description of their immediate environment and prospective situation closer. In this sense, the HCT argues that the individual's perceptions are opposed to the structural allocation of their assets. That is why justice is a balance of desires and social conventions internalized by the individual in reference to a group to which it belongs or wants to belong.
Since the economy, development is understood as a higher stage to aspiring countries that adopted a capitalist system. The implementation of policies and financial programs in industrial areas would increase per capita income and thus the increase in gross domestic product excellence indicators of economic development. From sociology, economic notion of development is complemented by equity, justice and freedom .
Referring to the availability of resources, the Theory of Human Development (HDT) maintains that the management, administration and distribution must not only follow the three sociological elements of development, but should also influence the generation, intensification of capacities and the allocation of responsibilities. In the relationship between society and state, the capabilities of citizenship, as already anticipated the HCT, they are essential in Human Development. Referring to life satisfaction, the HDT maintains that freedom of choice is essential to arrive at a state of at least individual satisfaction. That is, the person who is immersed in a scene of options is closest to the satisfaction this is because the resources are considered not only consumer goods, but of personal identity. The HDT suggests that the educational, technological and industrial areas are structures that impact the perception of the individual at the time of perceived opportunities, capabilities and responsibilities.
The relationship between political and civil spheres is supported by factors of public trust in which a public decision is the result of a shared responsibility and partnership between the actors involved . That is why the evaluation of public policies and social programs is not born from the quality of public services, but from the relationships established between citizens ' organizations with institutions. Referring to life satisfaction, authorities and citizens to build social confidence scenarios generate more symmetrical asymmetrical relationships. In this sense, social reliability is the result of the interplay between political structures and biased appraisals of citizens to government action with their authorities.
The Theory of Social Reliability (SFT) states that the individual, in their desire to guide their decisions and actions to a collective good, lays its expectations in policies and political programs from which ponders and evaluates scenarios of personal, group and social development. The SFT predicts doomsday scenarios if the levels of trust between citizens and authorities are reduced to a minimum or if levels of governance exclude actors and focus their attention on just one of them. In this sense, citizen participation not only feat from a scenario of supply and demand, but also focuses its interest in achieving objectives by means of collective action strategies.
Society and state are identified by development areas in which the interplay between individuals and groups generates scenarios significance of relations . It is molar and molecular relationships distinguishable by their degree of significance. In the first case, resources are considered as part of the community or group and its conservation on the individual ecological satisfaction. In the second case, resources are used as instruments for achieving goals. Thus, the Theory of Ecology Development (DET) states that individuals construct their expectations of resources from the interaction with other individuals and groups rather than the availability of the same.
Anthropic action is to reduce to a minimum the availability of resources is unfair, inequitable bounded distribution and collection management . In this sense, shared resources are exposed to human action as the loss of confidence among those who share resources entails the exclusion of any. It is an asymmetrical relationship that ends in tragedy because resources are increasingly scarce and increasingly shared needs.
Theory of the Commons (CRT) focuses attention on citizenship rather than the state, its policies and programs on public services. He believes that education, technology and employment are only the result of social movements that have achieved levels of human rights among which include free access to education, technology and employment in other elements. CRT maintains that a scenario of un-governability or unjust governance, the individual compares its political system with other systems of government and organized for collective action when this comparison is favorable for other forms of state that the individual has not experienced and that they would be implemented at least in your organization or municipality.
Thus, education, technology and employment are growth factors that inhibit the imbalance between our desires and the availability of resources or are factors justice because they facilitate the freedom of choice as opportunities allow vocational training and thus responsible use of resources. However, the quality of life is the synthesis of resources, opportunities, freedoms, capabilities and responsibilities.
Benites warns :
"It is a dynamic multidimensional concept that encompasses a number of aspects in the life of a person, the concept emphasizes not only the feeling of satisfaction and personal well - being, but also involves objective aspects related to living conditions and the interaction that establishes the person with their environment." (p. 11) "It is an assessment covering the dimensions of wellness: physical, psychological and social. Physical well-being is based on the perceived health status; psychological well-being based on the general state of mind linked to the welfare state or emotional discomfort with a sense of humor, anger anxiety, depression, fears; social welfare related to family functioning, intimacy, relationships with others, spiritual and existential concerns, welfare functional which is related to the ability to perform activities auto-valiamiento, autonomy and responsibility." (p.12)
That is, the quality of life is the result of the interplay between resource availability and perceived needs in terms of groups, societies, cultures and generations. The quality of life to settle for a standard reference means that the State and society have built institutions that allow access to the resources provided there is trust between the two actors. However, the perceived availability of resources against established goals determines the motivation to participate as long as the dissident group perceives that social change is possible. That is why the HCT, SFT, HDT, DET and CRT are theoretical frameworks that conceive the quality of life as a mediator of relations between society and state instrument. In this chain of conceptual links, education, technology and employment are factors enhancing development, justice, reliability and collective action. The quality of life in the brandished theoretical framework, is a link in the chain of rationality presupposes freedom of choice, opportunities, capabilities and responsibilities not only oriented development, justice, reliability or social mobilization, but also aimed at building a collective identity in a social and generational sector are young people can access resources claim their demands.
However, studies concerning the theoretical and conceptual framework are few and rather has focused on the quality of life in its subjective dimension, mainly from perceptions of welfare. Studies on the quality of life have established significant gender differences regarding transportation, employment and recreation . Also, when it has been weighted as a perceptual system resource around the individual and referring to the primary group is considered a style of personal welfare - oriented social integration . However, the quality of life in its negative dimension is determined by anxiety and depression in medical situations of uncertainty and deteriorating health . That is, the quality of life is the result of the perception of scarcity of resources rather than the generated future expectations or from personal abilities, opportunities seem to be reduced to a minimum and thus the responsibility of self-management improving expectations through relationships among members of a social, family or school group.
Grimaldo found eight alluding to the quality of life dimensions . This is the economic well - being, interpersonal relationship, family situation, neighborhood context, social capital and health. This means that the quality of life is a web of expectations that are based on a figurative nucleus to influence the decisions of resource allocation. That is why when the individual is undergoing one, health, family or interpersonal economic situation often think that their quality of life has been substantially modified . Immediately, aesthetic, emotional and rational expectations that trigger actions aimed at creating opportunities, skills upgrading and establishment of responsibilities of the individual to the group to which it belongs or wants to belong are activated . That is, the quality of life is a history of the formation of a group identity and sense of belonging anchored to freedom of choice, expectations of justice and collective mobilization.
It is through this process that the quality of life in their perceptual phase generates emotions of distrust of authorities arising in dissident citizen actions. Rather, the perception of quality of life, referring to the notion of social justice, is related by conventional styles of development that the individual has learned since childhood and now as an adult translates as reliability or confidence, but realizing that the relationship is asymmetric with its authorities then mobilizes the resources needed for civil disobedience.
Tariq notes that the quality of life, in its dimension of life satisfaction, requires a set of indicators to guide not only the perception of the individual but also collective action. A low level of life satisfaction is sufficient to activate the process of social dissent, but a high level of life satisfaction does not generate collaborative, supportive or empathetic relations .
However, low levels of life satisfaction, which indicate minimum standards of quality of life, allow the formation of support networks. This is the case of the new gay or lesbian social movement’s environmentalists who by forming self-help groups generate greater SWB who only receive a wealth of resources . As the quality of life is specific and limits to psychological factors, expectations of discontent, indignation and civil disobedience are increased, but also emerge social skills such as creativity and innovation of minority groups against ideological or pragmatic imposition of the majority . In short, the quality of life in economic, political, social, health, educational, employment and technological terms is a multidimensional construct .
Relations between opportunities, skills, responsibility, fairness, reliability and mobilization-oriented life satisfaction can be specified from a model. It is 7 variables around which the dependency relationships between economic, social and personal factors, political, group affect life satisfaction.
The HCT warns that capacities would have a significant impact on life satisfaction as a high level of education is offset by a high satisfying lifestyle. Furthermore, if there is relationship between skills and satisfaction of real or symbolic opportunities, then as indicated by the HDT human development is complemented. However, the process involving freedom of choice, necessarily capabilities and life satisfaction, according to CRT, depends on the availability of resources and their distribution among species. In the case of common resources there is a zero - sum tragedy in which stakeholders rather cooperate and establish an administrative stewardship of resources, wantonly compete and suppress the possibility of growth of other species. That is why the availability of resources indirectly affects life satisfaction.
Although the availability of resources pacesetter in the organization of human groups, is the state about citizenship, as warns the SFT, which determine the spread of resources. When the relationship between civil society and authorities is asymmetric, then the quality of life fades, but when there are relationships of trust, then emerges life satisfaction.
In another scenario, the relationship between citizenship and justice authorities raises expectations that undermine or ennoble responsibility. This is because, according to the DET, politics is concomitant with the economy. Higher levels of governance are observed in prosperous countries while un-governability underlying weak economies. That is why the expected justice directly affects the life satisfaction of citizens for their political system. The process of confidence, skills and life satisfaction is raised by the SFT. The relationship between society and development - oriented State has in the formation of human capital its main link. SFT proposes that development, unlike the growth but high standards of life satisfaction why, capabilities are an essential factor in the relationship between political reliability and personal life satisfaction.
The indirect relationship between justice and satisfaction to be mediated by the capabilities supposed ecological development scenarios. The CRT notes that the relationship between authorities and citizens is defined by molar and molecular actions that will affect individual satisfaction. Molars acts, unlike the molecular actions, involving meaningful relationships that are contrasted by the individual in crisis situations. By contrast, little meaningful relationships are understood as molecular events from which it is not possible to build a collective memory, social dissent and civil disobedience. Thus, justice system to be considered a molar action, it determines life satisfaction while being regulated by the personal abilities. However, the CRT notes that opportunities are the determinants of relations between reliability, justice, capabilities and satisfaction.
Thus, freedom of choice to be linked with the political reliability and individual capacities influence life satisfaction. This is because the trust between citizens and politicians depends on options of choice in employment. If there are job opportunities, then political reliability increases and generates high skills affect states of satisfaction. Or, the opportunities are disseminated as justice factors affecting the generation of job skills while it is possible to observe the increase in personal satisfaction of life.
However, freedom of choice and opportunities posed decisions, demands and resources from which gestate opportunities. This issue is that the CRT maintains that the availability of resources, but especially the dilemma of their distribution affects the development of communities or groups sharing scenarios and contexts. The story of a community or group seems to be undermined by cooperation and trust networks while resource availability permits. In a situation of scarcity dilemmas and thus the tragedies of common entities emerge. In this sense, the CRT maintains that the opportunities are the result of a shared responsibility between the parties involved.
Thus, resource management indirectly affects satisfaction through opportunities, reliability, justice and abilities. In the first instance, resource scarcity would generate a reduction in levels of public trust in the public administration, would affect the choice options slowing consumption capacity, once the purchasing power is committed, levels of citizen satisfaction are reduced to a minimum. In this vein, the shortage may also affect public perceptions of injustice, against the lack of government antigenic, choice capabilities are reduced to influence life satisfaction.
In contrast, when the availability of resources is scarce, but abundantly perceived by the public, choice opportunities appear to influence public confidence and thus in decision making seeking satisfaction not only personal or group, but social. This also involves a process of justice before the distribution of resources via public services. In this scenario life satisfaction precedes choice options to be perceived as abundant transferred the effect of social justice to life satisfaction.
Furthermore, the relationship between the valuation of the environment (resources) and life satisfaction (needs obtained) is understood by the CRT as a direct and meaningful process. It is an asymmetrical relationship as resource scarcity cope with increased expectations creates a scenario that compromises the public confidence for their future rulers and capabilities of future civil society. The CRT notes that in the case of social norms regarding the administration, and therefore the distribution of resources, its relationship with satisfaction in being direct and significant is a structural reductionism or, in the interrelation with social justice and capacities implies the emergence of a democratic system of citizen opening partnership against the State.
A cross-sectional quantitative study was carried out. A non-random selection of 245 students was conducted. The criterion of choice was having a pay, internet service and have been enrolled in the school semester activity. They interviewed 120 women and 125 men (M = 20.13 years and SD = 2.36 years). Economic status to which the sample belongs was medium low with around 1500 USD monthly household income (M = 950 USD and SD = 24.5 USD).
The sample declared to belong to the public university in question (M = 2.13 years of study and SD = 0.47 years). 67% of respondents had a scholarship or financial support (M = 100 USD and SD = 7.5 USD). Expenditure on tuition (300 USD semester), useful (250 USD semester), internet (50 USD monthly), transportation (35 USD weekly) generate an estimated investment of 1000 USD semester (M = 870 USD and DE = 15.67 USD).
The 36% of the sample declared work before or after attending the school (M = 400 USD and DE = $ 23.5 monthly). Of the respondents who work 78% said that their wages would rise substantially if complete its vocational training (M = 1200 USD and DE = $ 45.5 expected monthly). By contrast, 84% of respondents stated that their income would be lower if only they will have basic secondary education (M = 250 USD and SD = 14.6 USD).
The 57% of the sample has Internet access (M = 470 USD and DE = $ 15.7 per month) while 93% have mobile phone service (M = 140 USD and DE = $ 10.2 monthly). Facebook (46%), Twitter (27%) and Google+ (14%) are the most used social networks for school purposes or job search.
Quality of life from the educational, technological and labor dimensions depending on factors availability of resources, social reliability, social justice, opportunities for choice, selection skills and perceptions of satisfaction was constructed.
The application of the surveys was conducted at the premises of the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico, after processing to the authorities of the institution. When solving the questionnaire, respondents were instructed to write any questions they may have regarding the survey. After gathering the information, he was captured in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 to estimate multivariable parameters in Structural Analysis Moments (AMOS) version 6.0.
An analysis of normal considering the kurtosis parameter and reliability assuming an internal consistency or alpha Cronbach was performed. Then we proceeded to estimate the construct validity prior sphericity and suitability of the instrument to the study sample. Then, bivariate correlations or multivariate covariance were estimated to anticipate causal relationships in structural models, adjustment and waste.
The kurtosis parameter was used to set the proximity of the responses to the mean and standard deviation. Close to the unit values were taken as evidence of normal distribution.
The internal consistency of the reagents with respect to the scale was weighted Cronbach's alpha statistic. Higher than 0.60 and less than 0.90 values were taken as evidence of symmetrical relationships between reactants and psychological traits that are sought to be measured.
Alignment with the Kayser Meyer Olkin parameter in which values greater than 6.00 were considered as a requirement for construct validity are weighed. Sphericity with Bartlett's test was also estimated, chi close to unity and level of significance less than 0.050 square value were assumed as a second requirement for exploratory factor analysis of principal components with varimax rotation. The correlations between the item and the factor above 0.300 were assumed as indicators of a construct. Regarding the percentages of explained variance greater than 20% were considered as evidence adjustment model specifications with respect to the observed data.
The Pearson r parameter was used to calculate the negative or positive relationships between the factors in the construct validity. Those close to zero and unity were taken as spurious and collinear relationships. Instead, the values between the extremes were considered as probable association’s dependence.
Estimation "phi" was used to establish the association between a factor and another in reference to other factors. As the correlation values were identified as spurious, and dependence relationships collinear.
Parameters "phi" were used to estimate covariance, statistical "gamma" regression to estimate the mediators of exogenous factors, parameters "beta" for the regression of mediator’s endogenous factors. Statisticians "delta" epsilon "and" sigma "are used to calculate measurement errors of exogenous indicators and indicators of endogenous factors and disturbance of endogenous factors. The criterion for interpreting the values close to zero and the unit was also considered for the above parameters.
The contrast of the model was carried out from the estimated Index Goodness of fit (GFI). Close to the unit values were considered as evidence of acceptance of null hypothesis.
The contrast model also performed from the calculation of Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). The near zero values were considered as evidence of fit of the model specified with respect to the data.
Eight factors [KMO = 6.25 were established; X2 = 14.25 (23 gl) p = 0.000] concerning life satisfaction (items SV1, SV2, SV3 and 45% of the total variance explained), expected capacity (EC1, EC2, EC3 and 37% of the total variance explained), trust relationships (RC1, RC2, RC3 and 33% of the explained variance), perception of justice (PJ1, PJ2, PJ3 and 31% of the explained variance), expectations of opportunity ( EO1, EO2, EO3 and 27% of the explained variance), assessments of the environment (VE1, VE2, VE3 and 25% of the explained variance) standards context (NC1, NC2, NC3 and 23% of the explained variance) perceived resources (RP1, RP2, RP3 and 21% of the explained variance).
[KMO = .768; X2 = 435.3 (23gl) p < 0]
Method: Principal Ways; Rotation: Promax. F1 = Life Satisfaction, F2 Expected Capacity, F3 = Trust Relationships, F4 = Perception of Justice, F5 = Expectations of Opportunity; F6 = Assessments of the Environment, F7 = Standards Context, F8 = Perceived Resources
In the Case of the descriptive results a tendency to positive choices for answers to items of the factors of life satisfaction, expected capabilities, relationships of trust, norms of context and perceived resources and a negative prevalence is observed factors perception of justice, opportunity and ratings expectations of the environment.
Regarding life satisfaction, the item SV3 (M = 2.47; DE = 0.49; C = 2.04) won the closest value to the "very satisfactory" option while the item SV2 (M = 2 01; DE = 0.27; C = 2.08) approached the "unsatisfactory" option. That is, the survey sample appears to guide their life satisfaction toward educational, technological and labor scenario close to full satisfaction.
In the case of the expected capabilities, the item CE3 (M = 2.71; DE = 0.41; C = 2.01) approached the "far preferable". In contrast, the item EC1 (M = 2.47; DE = 0.37; C = 2.01) approached the "little better" option. In this sense, the survey sample seems to direct their responses to a near efficient option perception of their abilities.
Meanwhile, in relationships of trust, the item RC2 (M = 2.94; DE = 0.48; C = 2.05), unlike the item RC3 (M = 2.04; DE = 0.93; C = 2.01) approached the "very reliable" option. This suggests that confidence is perceived as a key element of relations between the surveyed samples.
As for the perception of justice, the item PJ3 (M = 1.27; DE = 0.31; C = 2.05) compared to item PJ2 (M = 1.59; DE = 0.15; C = 2.01) to be closer to the "highly undesirable" option is a biased appreciation of justice. This is because the injustice that the survey shows perceives its authorities seems to be a central element in their life satisfaction.
In the case of the expectations of opportunity, the item EO3 (M = 1.14; DE = 0.31; C = 2.05) about the item EO2 (M = 1.38; DE = 0.59; C = 2.01) reflects a trend towards the "little option" which suggests that opportunities are considered almost nil by the survey sample.
It is the same case of valuations of the environment since the item VE3 (M = 1.03; DE = 0.26; C = 2.03) compared to item VE1 (M = 1.46; DE 0.49; C = 2,01) shows a tendency to "very efficient" option that is the result of considering public services as a system of unequal distribution among the survey sample. Regarding the rules of context, the item NC2 (M = 2.70; DE = 0.59; C = 2.01) in contrast to the item NC3 (M = 2.35; DE = 0.63; C = 2.07) approached the "very significant" option. This means that the conventions that guide the actions of the individual to be evaluated positively show the influence of the system on an indicator of the quality of life in the survey sample.
Finally, the factor of perceived resources, RP3 item (M = 2.75; DE = 0.21; C = 2.03) compared to Item RP2 (M = 2.14; DE = 0.56; C = 2.08) reflects a "very cooperative" tendency on the part of the survey sample. This means that the distribution of resources probably influences the perception of scarcity and therefore the need for sharing.
The reliability of the factors 1 to 8 (respective alphas of 0.72, 0.74, 0.79, 0.74, 0.78, 0.75, 0.75 0,71y) evidence a regular consistency between items since the overall reliability of the instrument was 0.69. The association between factors shows that life satisfaction and expectations of opportunity (r = 0.582), expected capabilities and perceived resources (r = 0.719), trusting relationships with perceived resources (r = 0.625), perception of justice expectations of opportunity (r = 0.613), expectations of opportunity with perceived resources (r = 0.509), assessment of environment standards context (r = 0.495) and standards context perceived resources (r = 0.321) mean that the specification of relationships between factors could be estimated by a model, although it was expected that would have negative relationships between perceptions justice, expectations of opportunity and ratings of the environment as their means, deviations and kurtosis warned a negative prevalence regarding the trend positive of the other factors.
The analysis of covariance, as correlations showed positive relationships between life satisfaction and ratings of the environment (Φ = 0.610), expected capabilities expectations opportunity (Φ = 0.692), trusting relationships with resources perceived (Φ = 0.729), perception of justice perceived resources (Φ = 0.624), expectations of opportunity with standards context (Φ = 0.714), assessments of the environment perceived resources (Φ = 0.624) and standards of context with resources collected (Φ = 0.735). Covariance’s brandished warn that the specified relationships seem to explain a system of quality of life centered on life satisfaction, expected capabilities, relationships of trust, norms of context and resources collected more than perceptions of justice, expectations of opportunity and ratings of the environment.
The model of structural relationships shows that the factor that increases the explanatory power of perception of resources on life satisfaction is the standard of context (γ = 0.52), followed by environmental assessment factor (γ = 0, 37), expected capacity (β = 0.31), relations of trust (β = 0.28) and perceived justice (β = 0.24). That is, the full satisfaction of actions relating to the academy, technology and employment is influenced by the availability of resources received through ingrained behaviors of students. This finding exalts a case of the Theory of the Commons whereby the customs of groups internalize resources as elements of community and identity. This is because the conservation of resources due to ingrained habits in the sense of belonging is essential for personal, group or community satisfaction. The contrast of the dependency relationships [X2 = 12.35 (12 gl) p = 0.000; GFI = 0.975; RMR = 0.000] evidence acceptance of the null hypothesis.