Journal of Aquaculture & Fisheries Category: Aquaculture Type: Review Article
Present Status of Fish Disease Management in Freshwater Aquaculture in India: State-of-the-Art-Review
- Mishra SS1*, Rakesh D1, Dhiman M2, Choudhary P1, Debbarma J1, Sahoo SN1, Barua A1, Giri BS 3, Ramesh R3, Ananda K4, Mishra CK5, Swain P1
- 1 Fish Health Management Division, ICAR-Central Institute Of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA), Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
- 2 Department Of Zoology, Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya Vishwavidyalaya, Chitrakoot, Satna, Madhya Pradesh, India
- 3 Regional Centre Of Icar Central Institute Of Freshwater Aquaculture, Poranki, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
- 4 Regional Centre Of Icar Central Institute Of Freshwater Aquaculture, Hessarghatta, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
- 5 Regional Centre Of Icar Central Institute Of Freshwater Aquaculture, Anand, Gujarat, India
*Corresponding Author:Mishra SS
Fish Health Management Division, ICAR-Central Institute Of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA), Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
Received Date: Aug 03, 2017 Accepted Date: Sep 11, 2017 Published Date: Sep 25, 2017
Indian fisheries and aquaculture is an important sector of food production, providing nutritional security to the food basket, contributing to the agricultural exports and engaging about fourteen million people in different activities. With diverse aquatic resources the country has shown continuous and sustained increments in fish production since independence. Constituting about 6.3% of the global fish production, the sector contributes to 1.1% of the GDP and 5.15% of the agricultural GDP. The total fish production of 10.07 million metric tonnes, presently has nearly 65% contribution from the inland sector and nearly the same from culture fisheries. However, occurrence of disease has become a primary constraint to sustainable aquaculture production and product trade, there by affecting the socioeconomic status of fishers in country like India. Different stress factors such as inadequate physicochemical and microbial quality of culture water, poor nutritional status and high stocking density can cause infection by opportunistic pathogens. Acute level of pollutants and suspended solids can directly bring about abnormalities and mortalities in seed fishes and adults. Different opportunistic bacterial pathogens and parasites cause devastating loss to fish industry in terms of high morbidity and mortality, diminishing growth and enhanced expenditure on use of chemicals as preventive and control measures. As is understood, prevention of fish diseases assumes paramount importance in terms of sustainable growth of aquaculture sector in India, enhancing productivity, socioeconomic condition and livelihood security of fishers who are directly or indirectly dependant on this sector. The details of freshwater aquaculture practices, prevalence of disease, principle of disease diagnosis and control programme and future scope of development of freshwater aquaculture in India, have been elaborated.
AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION STATUS IN INDIA
Figure 1: Showing growth total aquaculture production status in India .
|S. no||Resource||Size||Management Mode|
|1.||Rivers||54,000 km||Capture fisheries|
|2.||Medium and large reservoirs||16.86 lakh ha||Capture fisheries|
|3.||Small reservoirs||14.86 lakh ha||Culture based fisheries|
|4.||Flood plain wetlands||5.42 lakh ha||Culture based fisheries|
|5.||Freshwater ponds/tanks||23.8 lakh ha||Aquaculture|
|14||All States together in India, total||3275091||5744057||9019148|
DISEASE PROBLEMS IN INDIAN AQUACULTURE
COMMON DISEASES REPORTED IN FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE
|Sl No||Disease Condition||Symptoms||Involvement of Pathogens|
|A. Bacterial Diseases|
|1||Columnaris Disease||Haemorrhagic and ulcerative lesions on fins, head, back, which may look yellow to orange due to bacterial growth and pigmentation.||Flavobacterium columnare (Flexibacter/Cytophaga columnaris)|
|2||Tail rot and Fin rot||Erosions, discoloration and disintegration of fins and tails.||A.hydrophila, Pseudomonas spp. Cytophaga spp., Haemophilus Haemophilus|
|3||Bacterial gill disease or Gill rot or Environmental disease||Gasping, lethargic, gills look discoloured with trapped materials, secondary fungal infection||Flavobacterium branchiophilum, Cytophaga spp., Flexibacter spp.|
|4||Aeromoniasis or Motile Aeromonas septicaemia||Haemorrhagic and ulcerative lesions on skin fins, head, exopthalmia||Aeromonas hydrophila, A veronii bv. Sobria, A. sobria|
|5||Edwardsiellosis or Edwardsiella septicaemia||Ulcerative abscesses in internal organs, haemorrahic ulcers on skin, fins and body, rectal protrusion||Edwardsiella tarda|
|6||Vibriosis||Ulcerative abscesses in internal organs, haemorrahic ulcers on skin, fins and body||Vibrio anguillarum, V. parahaemolyticusV.alginolyitucs|
|7||Eye disease||Cataract of eyes, affect cornea, eyeball gets putrefied||Aeromonasliquefaciens,Staphylococcus aureus, various other bacteria|
|8||Pseudomoniasis/Psedomonas septicaemia||Haemorgaic lesions on skin, fins, tail||Pseudomonas sp. Pseudomonas fluorescens|
|9||Enteric Red Mouth Disease (ERM)||Haemorgaic lesions on skin around mouth, fins, tail. Internal haemorrhages||Yersinia ruckeri|
|B. Fungal diseases|
|1||Saprolegniasis||Fungi usually grow on dead organic matter of pond bottom. Fish become weak, ulceration of skin with haemorrhages, cotton wool growth on ulcers with grey patches||Saprolegnia parasitica,|
|2||Branchiomycosis (Gill rot disease)||Fungi usually grow on heavily deposited decaying organic matter of pond bottom. Fish become lethargic, redness of gills, which later become grayish-white, necrosis of gill filaments||Branchiomyces demigrans|
|3||Epzootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS)||Fish become lethargic, redness of skin, ulcerative patches, high mortality||Aphanomyces invadans sp. (Fungs), Aeromonashydrophila, A. sobria|
|C. Parasitic diseases|
|Ichthyophthiriasis (Ich/White spot disease)||Most fish are susceptible. Whitish cysts of around 1 mm diameter, mostly observed on skin, fins and gills.||Ichthyophthirius multifiliis|
|2||Trichodiniasis||Most fish are susceptible. Whitish cysts observed on skin, fins and gills. Disc shaped, spherical cysts can be observed in whitish material under microscope.||Trichodina sp.|
|3||Dactylogyrusis (Gill fluke)||Mostly affects gills, destroying the gill filaments, gills with clumps of white masses. Parasites can be observed under microscope in sample from gills||Dactylogyrus|
|4||Gyrodactylosis(Skin fluke)||These parasites which grow on and destroy the skin, gills with clumps of white masses, frequently associated with secondary infections.||Gyrodactylus spp.|
|6||Argulosis (Carp lice)||Wide spread in most cultured & ornamental fish species in India. Parasite is seen moving on the skin surface, causing skin lesions with secondary bacterial infections, haemorrhagic spots and ulcers.||Argulus spp.|
|7||Myxosporidiasis||Parasite produces cysts on different parts of body, internal organs and gill filaments. Fish becomes weak, falling of scales. On microscopic observation, typical cysts can be observed in gill squash.||Myxosporidium spp.|
Another bacterial disease commonly reported in fish culture is bacterial skin disease or red disease. It is a systematic bacterial infection. There are red areas on body, depression with swollen eyes and abdomen. A wide variety of bacteria mainly belonging to Gram-negative rods are involved. Many pathogens are present only at skin lesions, especially Flexibacteria, Aeromonads, Vibrios etc. There may be necrotic lesions on fins (fin rot). The disease may become systematic, more severe form causing mortality. Another important bacterial disease often confused with red disease in carp culture in Motile AeromonasSepticaemia (MAS). This is probably the most common bacterial disease causing severe production loss to freshwater fish culture. This disease has been associated with several members of the genus Aeromonas, including A. hydrophila, A. sobria, A. caviae, A. schuberti, and A.veronii . The clinical signs of motile Aeromonas septicaemia include high morbidity often with superficial to deep skin lesions and sometimes sudden death with or without any clinical symptoms. Skin lesions are often noticed at base of the fins, with variously sized areas of haemorrhage and necrosis. There are red areas on body, skin ulcers, swollen body, abdomen and eyes and musculature, hence often called as “red-disease”. These lesions may progress to reddish to grey ulcerations with necrosis of the underlying. Unless immediate action not taken, the mortality rate often reached to 100%.
Other bacterial diseases of less importance are Edwardsiellosis, caused by Edwardsiella tarda and Enteric Red mouth Disease, caused by the pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. There are some reports of occurrence of Columnaris bacterial disease that affects the skin or gills of freshwater fish and is caused most commonly by Flexibacter columnaris. This is primarily an epithelial disease and necrosis and erosions of the skin and gills are often observed which may become systemic. Whitish plaques with reddish peripheral zone are observed mostly on the head or back, hence the disease also called saddleback disease. Lesions on fins arte also often observed, hence it is also called as fin rot disease.
Parasitic diseases of fish
Among all fish parasitic infestations, disease with Argulous is most common (29%), followed by infestation with Dactylogyrous (25%) and Myxobolous (9%) (Figure 2). However, in some cases infestation with multiple parasites have also been reported in fish culture. It has been observed that incidence of Argulosis in the wild fish populations is of very low in intensity compared to that reported in pond culture conditions . Loss due to parasitic disease Argulosis was been estimated to be to the tune of Rupees 30,000 (US$ 615) per hectare per year in carp culture in India . However,  estimated loss of BDT 35,552.50 ha-1 yr-1 due to parasitic diseases in carp cultures in Bangladesh. Overall loss due to parasitic diseases was found 11% for mortality, 11% for chemicals cost and 65% for reduction of growth of carps in the study areas.
Figure 2: Occurrence of single and/ multiple parasitic infestations in freshwater aquaculture.
Fungal diseases of fish
Another important fungal induced disease in fish culture of high economic importance is Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS). It is widely occurred in freshwater aquaculture causing a great loss in South East Asia including India. It is a severe and economically important disease affecting farmed freshwater fish and listed as a notifiable disease. Haemorrhages and ulcers are the clinical manifestation of the disease symptoms on the body surfaces. It is an important bacterial-fungal mixed infection responsible for high mortality in freshwater fishes. Fish species commonly affected are Catla catla, L. rohita, C.mrigala, C. carpio, Channa sp., Puntus sp., and G. chapra . Affected fishes become weak, off-fed and float on the surface of the water. Initially, red coloured lesions often with haemorrhages are seen on skin, which gradually becoming deeper and assuming the form of ulcers. In some cases tissues patches fall off, causing secondary infection and high mortality . Although a wide variety of organisms have been isolated from the body surfaces and internal organs of the fish, Aphanomyces invadrans is believed to be the primary causative organism . A range of both biotic and abiotic factors may predispose fish to infection by EUS , reported EUS to be the most common disease in Bangladesh that has a significant impact on carp culture they indicated that ponds receiving water from rice field and river/ditch had high relative risk of EUS . The details of fungal disease in fish culture has been presented in table 3.
Farmers in the region are in practice of using various probiotic formulations, aqua drugs and chemicals, various antimicrobials, sanitizers, anti-parasitic drugs and even antibiotics in fish culture system, as preventive and control measures to protect the crops. Some drugs and preparations, which are used in animal medicine and agriculture practices are also being used in fish culture . CIFAX, a chemical formulation developed by the scientists of ICAR-CIFA, has been found quite useful in controlling EUS and other bacterial infections, besides have some other useful actions in pond culture .
Viral diseases for fish
The pattern of disease occurrence and mortality is typical in Indian aquaculture system. While occurrence of viral disease especially White spot disease, has caused havoc in shrimp aquaculture, viral disease outbreaks has not been the cause of concern in fish culture. The significant observation is that so far not a single case of viral disease outbreak has been reported in freshwater aquaculture in India, causing huge mortality. May be that India is blessed with Indigenous Variety of Indian Major Carps (IMCS) which are not susceptible to fish viral pathogens as prevalent in other Asian countries or the culture environment is not conducive for the viral pathogens to multiply and cause disease. However, frequent occurrence of parasitic infestations in fish culture has been an area of concern, which is responsible for high morbidity and production loss, compared to other pathogens. As has been presented in figure 3, incidences of occurrence of parasitic infestations in freshwater aquaculture are maximum (46%), followed by loss due to alternation in water quality parameters (24%) leading to production loss. Infection of fish with bacterial pathogens are in the range of 22% and in only 8% cases the mortality are due to other factors (Figure 3).
Figure 3: Different causative factors responsible for mortality and production loss in freshwater aquaculture.
Another significant observation in Indian aquaculture has been seasonal variation in occurrence and severity of fish diseases in freshwater aquaculture (Table 4). Whereas incidences of red disease or Aeromoniasis are common during all seasons, the incidences of Black-gill disease are more during winter periods. Among parasitic diseases, occurrence of Argulousis and gill fluke disease are comparatively more during winter and post-rainy season. Hence, the farmers are advised to take due preventive and control measures during post-rain and winter seasons in grow-out culture system.
|Diseases||Species affected||Stage of fish||Seasonal distribution|
|A. Bacterial diseases||Summer||Rainy||Winter|
|Aeromoniasis||Freshwater fishes||All stages||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Red disease||Freshwater fishes||Grow out and Adult||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Edwardsellosis||All freshwater and some brackish water fishes||Mostly fry and fingerlings||No||Yes||Yes|
|Bacterial gill disease||All freshwater fishes||Grow out and Adult||No||No||Yes|
|Columnaris disease||All freshwater fishes||All stages||Yes||No||No|
|Vibriosis||Freshwater prawn and shrimps||All stages||Yes||Yes||No|
|B. Viral diseases|
|Whites pot disease||Penaeus monodon, P. vennamei||All stages||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|White tail disease||Macrobrachium rosenbergii||Post larvae and juvenile||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|C. Fungal diseases|
|Saprolegniasis||All freshwater fishes||All stages||No||No||Yes|
|D. Parasitic diseases|
|Argulosis||All freshwater fishes with scales are affected. Labeo rohita more susceptible||Adult||No||Yes||Yes|
|Lernaeasis||All freshwater fishes||Adult and Juveniles||No||Yes||Yes|
|Myxosporidiasis||All freshwater fishes||All stages||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Dactylogyrosis||All freshwater fishes||Adult||No||Yes||Yes|
PRINCIPLES OF DISEASE DIAGNOSIS AND CONTROL PROGRAMME
FUTURE SCOPE OF DEVELOPMENT OF AQUACULTURE IN INDIA
However, there remain some impediments which need to be tackled to have enhanced fish production in India. As suggested by Siddick et al., , the productivity of water bodies can be further improved by i) Stocking right mix of fast growing fish varieties in recommended quantities ii) Indian Major Carps (IMC) being the most demanded fish species in the region, seed production hatcheries to be made available near to the culture sites, iii) Research work need to be taken up in developing fast growing fish varieties suitable for short seasonal tanks iv) Stocking with right composition of fish seeds need to be taken up to utilize natural feed available in different levels of water column. Again, there is considerable potential for promoting scientific fish culture practices in community ponds or open-water resources . Besides modern culture practices, research on disease surveillance, pathogen zoning and disease forecasting would help to take up suitable preventive and control measures to protect the crops against eventualities. Considering the importance of fish disease surveillance in health management Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA), Bangkok, in their meeting during April 2012, made a strong recommendation for the need for a national program on surveillance. This was followed up by the development of a project proposal by the ICAR-National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources (NBGFR), Lucknow, India, in consultation with national partners and NACA . In this regard, DAHDF, Government of India, has already approved a “National Surveillance Programme on Aquatic Animal Disease”, through the National Fisheries Development Board, Hyderabad, in collaboration with State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) and ICAR Research Institutes. Besides this, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has already implemented a national programme “All Indian Network Project on Fish Health” through ICAR - Research Institutes and SAUs . The project aims to understand the disease prevalence status, economic loss caused due to disease, cataloguing of various drugs and chemicals used in aquaculture and conducting fish health camp and awareness programme for the benefit of farmers. Efforts are also being made to bring a “National inland fisheries Policy” along with new “National Marine Fisheries Policy”, which will decide an overall and integrated growth frame work in the area of inland fisheries throughout the country , which would lead to sustainable development of aquaculture in India.
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Citation: Mishra SS, Das R, Dhiman M, Choudhary P, Debbarma J, et al. (2017) Present Status of Fish Disease Management in Freshwater Aquaculture in India: State-of-the-Art-Review. J Aquac Fisheries 1: 003.
Copyright: © 2017 Mishra SS, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.