Journal of Aquaculture & Fisheries Category: Aquaculture Type: Short Communication
Record of Semi-operculum Deformity in Sahyadria denisonii (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)
- Sajan S1*, Mercy TVA1
- 1 Department Of Fisheries, Kerala University Of Fisheries And Ocean Studies, Panangad, Ernakulum, Kerala, India
*Corresponding Author:Sajan S
Department Of Fisheries, Kerala University Of Fisheries And Ocean Studies, Panangad, Ernakulum, Kerala, India
Tel:+ 91 9846945700,
Received Date: Apr 22, 2020 Accepted Date: Apr 29, 2020 Published Date: May 06, 2020
Semi-operculum deformity was recorded in a wild specimen of Sahyadria denisonii from Western Ghats, India. Morphological study of a normal and deformed fish revealed semi-operculum malformation. The possible etiologies of opercular deformity are discussed.
Deformity; Puntius denisonii; Semi-operculum; Western Ghats
Morphological deformities are not infrequent in fish, having been recorded in both freshwater and marine fish species. Deformities in fishes are known to be caused as a result of environmental pollutants, scarcity of nutrients, sudden changes in temperature, water current, gene mutation, inbreeding, parasitic infestation and attack from predators [1,2]. Fin anomalies in general are extremely well documented in both wild and reared fish, but not operculum anomalies. Sahyadria denisonii (Day 1865) an ornamental fish, popularly known as the Redline Torpedo Barb or ‘Miss Kerala’ is endemic to the rivers flowing through the Western Ghats of southern India [3,4]. Due to over exploitation from wild for the global ornamental fish trade, this species has been listed as Endangered . We document for the first time, a case of semi-operculum deformity in S.denisonii from the rivers of Western Ghats in India.
Deformed S.denisonii was caught in drag net operation from Palappuzha region of River Valapattanam (11.9499 latitude and 75.7338 longitudes) in May 2013. Morphological abnormality was photographed with a digital camera (Sony DSC-H20). For the comparison with deformed specimen, a normal fish (Figure 1a-1e) from the same catch (Standard Length=30 mm) was also collected.
Figure 1: a. Deformed specimen of Sahyadria denisonii; b. Normal specimen; c-e. Deformed specimen with semi-operculum
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A deformed specimen of S.denisonii collected from River Valapattanam was recorded with standard length of 29 mm, total weight of 79 mg with an age 0+. Age of the deformed fish was estimated from length frequency studies of S.denisonii by Sajan et al., . Generally, operculum related deformities are related to inside or outside folding, shortening or abnormal positioning of the opercular and sub-opercular bones, both bilaterally or unilaterally . In present records compared to a healthy normal fish (Figure 1b), the deformed wild caught specimen of S.denisonii possessed unilateral semi-operculum on the left side (Figure 1a,c-e). Similar types of operculum deformity have been reported in Oreochromis niloticus and O.mossambicus . Although operculum abnormality is known to be generally unilateral, some species also show bilateral semi-operculum .
The streams and rivers in India, especially in the Western Ghats are facing number of environmental problems as a result of anthropogenic activities . Record of malformed fish from polluted area are used as indicators of water pollution . KSCSTE , reported that the River valapattanam has been polluted by the extensive usage of pesticides in adjacent land for agriculture and also by destructive fishing using dynamite and chemicals. Harikumar , also reported, upstream part of River valapattanam was found to be slightly polluted in both monsoon and post monsoon season. Subha , also specified pollutants have been a factor responsible for deformity in fishes.
Parasitic infestations, oxygen deficiency, water current, salinity, sudden change in temperature, toxic chemicals, hereditary may also accountable for deformity in fishes [11,12]. Environmental stress related deformities were also recorded in Cirrhinus mrigala and Hypothalmichthys molitrix from Bhavani River in Kerala . Developmental errors such as embryonic, larval or early post larval development are also responsible for deformation in fishes . Vitamin-C deficiency related operculum deformity has also been reported in hatchery reared Cyprinus carpio , O.niloticus and O.mossambicus . Inbreeding , as well as genetic factors [18,19], can also elicit such abnormalities in fish species, although operculum deformity was found to be non-inheritable [18-22].
From the above discussion, it is clear that the fish deformities are very complex and are caused by multiple factors. Even though the exact cause for deformity in S.denisonii was not determined; combination of pollutants, pesticides, or genetic factors could be responsible. However, the present record is nevertheless significant owing to the evidence of the occurrence of semi-operculum in wild population of S.denisonii.
- Fagbuaro O (2009) Inbreeding of mouth malformed and crocked back Clarias gariepinus. Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology 12: 44-50.
- Amitabh H, Firoz Ahmed M (2010) A wild specimen of Indian Carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) 1822 with multiple Vertebral Deformities. World Journal of Zoology 5: 167-177.
- Rajeev R, Prasad G, Pereira B, Ali A, Sujarittanonta L (2009) Damsel in distress’? The tale of Miss Kerala, Puntius denisonii (Day), an endemic and endangered cyprinid of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot (South India). Aquatic Conservation 19: 67-74.
- Ali A, Raghavn R, Dahanukar N (2011) Puntius denisonii In: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
- Sajan S, Mercy TVA, Malika V (2015) Age, Growth and population dynamics of an endangered fish Sahyadria denisonii (Day 1865) from the Western Ghats Hotspot of India. Asian Fisheries Science 28: 130-142.
- Galeotti M, Beraldo P, de Dominis S, D’Angelo L, Ballestrazzi R, et al. (2000) A preliminary histological and ultrastructural study of opercular anomalies in gilthead sea bream larvae (Sparus aurata). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 22: 151-157.
- Sun PE, Hawkins WE, Overstreet RM, Peterson NJB (2009) Morphological deformities as biomarkers in fish from contaminated rivers in Taiwan. Int J Environ Res Public Health 6: 2307-2331.
- Harbi AHA (2001) Skeletal deformities in cultured common Carp Cyprinus Carpio Asian Fisheries Science 14: 247-254.
- KSCSTE (2013) Kerala’s 4 river basins ‘polluted’. KSCSTE, India.
- Subba BR (2004) Anomalies in bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis and African Catfish Clarias gariepinus in Biratnagar, Nepal. Our nature 2: 41-44.
- Jawad LA, Oktener A (2007) Incidence of lordosis in the freshwater mullet, liza abu (Heckel,1843) Collected from Ataturk dam lake, Turkey. Anales de Biologia 29:105-113.
- Fagbuaro O, Oso AJ (2011) Skeletal malformations among the Clarias species from fish mongers in Ekiti state. Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 5: 32-37.
- Raj AJA, Seetharaman S, Haniffa MA (2004) Skeletal deformities in a few freshwater fishes from Bhavani river, Tamil Nadu. Zoos print Journal 19: 1628-1629.
- Harikumar PSP, Deepak R, Sabitha AR (2014) Water Quality Assessment of Valapattanam River Basin in Kerala, India, using Macro-Invertebrates as Biological Indicators. The Open Environmental & Biological Monitoring Journal 6: 1-9.
- Dutta SPS, Slathia D, Chander G, Kumar H (2011) Anomalies in Cirhhinus mrigala, a commercially important fresh water food fish, from Gurdaspur district of Punjab. The Bioscan 6: 405-411.
- Dabrowski K, Hinterleither S, Sturmbauer C, Fiky NE, Wieser W (1988) Do carp larvae require vitamin C? Aquaculture 72: 295-306.
- Handwerker TS, Tave D (1994) Semioperculum: A nonheritable deformity in Mozambique Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 6: 85-88.
- Panday KD, Awasthi SK (1994) Threatened Fishes of India. In: Dehadari PV, Das P and Verma SR (ed). Nature Conservators, Muzaffarnagar, India.
- Chandrasekeran G, Rao BS (1981) An observation of the naked gill in trouts and its genetical significance. Matsya 7: 85-86.
- Ando D, Nakajima M, Fujio Y (1995) Strain differences of vertebral abnormalities in the Guppy Poecilia reticulata. Tohoku Journal of Agricultural Research 46: 29-34.
- Tave D, Handwerker TS (1994) Semi-operculum: A non-heritable birth defect in Tilapia nilotica. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 25: 333-336.
- Hickey CR (1973) Common abnormalities in fishes, their causes and effects. Transactions of the Northeast Fish and Wildlife Conference 1972: 71-83.
Citation: Sajan S, Mercy TVA (2020) Record of Semi-operculum Deformity in Sahyadria denisonii (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). J Aquac Fisheries 4: 029.
Copyright: © 2020 Sajan S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.