Journal of Aquaculture & Fisheries Category: Aquaculture Type: Research Article
Status of Aqua-medicines, Drugs and Chemicals Use in India: A Survey Report
- Mishra SS1*, Choudhary P1, Debbarma J1, Sahoo SN1, Barua A1, Giri BS 2, Swain P1, Das R1, Das BK3, Rathod R2, Sahu A1, Patil PK4
- 1 Fish Health Management Division, ICAR-Central Institute Of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA), Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
- 2 Regional Centre Of Icar Central Institute Of Freshwater Aquaculture, Poranki, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
- 3 Icar Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
- 4 Icar Central Institute Of Brackishwater Aquaculture Ciba, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
*Corresponding Author:Mishra SS
Fish Health Management Division, ICAR-Central Institute Of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA), Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
Received Date: Jul 25, 2017 Accepted Date: Sep 19, 2017 Published Date: Oct 13, 2017
Survey was performed to assess the availability and use of different commercial grade aqua-medicines, drugs and chemicals in aquaculture activities in the selected key districts of four aquaculture dominant states of India viz., Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. A total of 265 farms, 36 aqua shops, and 18 drug manufacturer units were surveyed and information collected. Data were collected through stratified random sampling techniques using key Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools like standard questionnaire, personal interview, market survey, and group discussion, fish health camp and awareness programme with fish farmers, entrepreneurs and fish seed hatchery owners. Besides these views of State Fishery Departmental staff, retailers of aqua-medicines, drug inspectors and representatives of pharmaceutical companies were also taken. Six categories of aqua drugs and chemicals were found to be used by the fish farmers and hatchery owners which included those used for i) water quality management, ii) anti-parasitic drugs, iii) disinfectants or sanitizers, iv) water and feed probiotics, v) feed supplements and growth promoters and vi) antibiotics. Highest proportions of products used in aquaculture were assessed to be those used for feed supplements and growth promoters (31%) followed by water and feed probiotics (24%). Other products included were those chemicals and formulations used for water quality management (18%), disinfectants and sanitizers (13%), anti-parasitic drugs (10%) and antibiotics (4%). Furthermore, the survey revealed most farmers and end users lack knowledge and information on the quality and utility of such aqua-drugs and chemicals and they are mostly dependent on local consultants or representatives for their application in aquaculture. Again, some of the drugs and chemicals used in animal medicine and agricultural practices have made their way in aquaculture application. Besides these, various other anthropogenic activities have led to release of large quantities of drugs, chemicals, pesticides and antibiotics into aquatic system, mainly through human wastes and agricultural runoff. Unregulated use of such antibiotics and chemicals may lead to development and spread of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and all that may induce a negative impact on human, fish and the environment. So, the policy makers, researchers and scientists should work together in addressing the issues of irrational use of such drugs and chemicals in aquaculture with the view to lessen the unseen impacts on aquaculture in future days.
In recent years, there has been a noteworthy expansion of aquaculture in India. Much of this development has been focused on states like Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Punjab, where commercial carp culture is gaining momentum. In Andhra Pradesh, commercial aquaculture was initiated in the Kolleru lake region of Andhra Pradesh and recent growth of the sector around Kolleru lake and the surrounding districts like in East Godavari, West Godavari and Krishna, has put this region as the epicentre of Indian aquaculture. Besides, modern aquaculture has made rapid growth in eastern part of India like in Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand states. With the increase in aquaculture practices leading to enhanced fish production, aquatic animals have come across a series of health menaces due to environmental stress, incursion of infectious pathogens and increased incidence of fish disease outbreaks [6,7]. Incidence of different bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic diseases have been reported in aquaculture in India [8,9] and other Asian countries [5,10-11]. This has led to enhancement in application of a wide range of aqua–medicines, drugs and chemicals in aquaculture to control production loss [12-18]. Besides their use in fish health management, aquaculture drugs and chemicals play key role in various other aquaculture activities like in pond construction, soil and water management, enhancement of natural aquatic productivity, feed formulation and growth [19-23]. A large numbers so called aquaculture consultants and representatives of pharmaceuticals and feed companies and chemical sellers are involved in marketing chain, for delivery of such products to end users . Serious concern has been raised by different international organizations over misuse or abuse of these chemicals, often leading to development of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) leading to public health hazard [21,25-29]. However, so far no appropriate research or systematic survey have been carried out in India, to understand the marketing and availability of various aqua-medicines, drugs and chemicals for application in aquaculture. Therefore, the present survey was carried out to assess the market availability and use pattern of various aqua-medicines, drugs, chemicals and formulations in major aquaculture zones in India and to understand the linkage between drug producers, consultants and fish farmers. Besides these, efforts have been made to review and correlate aqua-drugs and chemicals use pattern in other aquaculture producing nations and guidelines of international organizations on responsible use of such drugs and chemicals in aquaculture.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Data collection and analysis
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In the present survey, it was observed that a wide variety of chemicals and formulations were available in the market, recommended for maintenance of water quality and pond management in aquaculture. The list of such chemicals with their active ingredients have been presented in table 1. Pond preparation is vital to enhance the productivity of the system. Again, maintenance of optimum water quality is very crucial in determining the success and failure of the fish production to a great extent which includes pH, total alkalinity, total hardness, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), ammonia, and nitrite-nitrate concentration. In the survey region, different chemicals like Addoxy, Aqualite, Clinzex-DS, Earth, Halonex, Odoban-A30 etc. were commonly used in pond preparation process and for maintenance of optimum water quality. Whereas Ammocurb, Ammo Trap, Bio Curb, De-Odorase, De-Odr and Toximar were used for removal of ammonia from water and sediment, O2 MAX, Oxycal and Oxy-Gen were used for DO maintenance. The range of such products used in shrimp culture were more than that used in carp culture. It was noted that most of these products were imported in bulk by the local firms from other Asian counties like China, Thailand and Singapore, which were then repacked and marketed as different brands with variable compositions. In aquaculture, maintaining optimum DO concentration (3-6 ppm) in the culture ponds is most important in cloudy weather, post-monsoon and during winter season, as many cases of fish-kills are recorded due to this single factor. Hence fish farmers need to know the required water treatment processes to control temperature, DO, pH, and dissolved nitrogen compound (ammonia, nitrate and nitrite) levels in the culture water for optimal growth of aquatic animals .
|Trade Names||Active Ingredients||Dose and Dosage|
|Addoxy||Tetraacetyl ethylene diamine, Sodium perborate, Adsorbants and De-odorizers||500 g/ha|
|ALTIMATE-ZM AQUA||Hydrated sodium calcium alumino silicates, Buffered organic acids, activated charcoal and Dried neem leaf powder||10 k/acre of water spread area|
|Clarity||Edetic acid, Hydrated alkaline sulphate, Peroxides, Amitoxins, Alluminium dehydrated silicates||1-2 k/acre|
|Clinzex-DS||Aquaculture grade Zeolite||Pond: 50 k/Ha, During culture: 15-20 kg per Ha|
|Earth||Humic acid, Humin cytokynine, Auxine, Fuxine, Fulvic acid||1 l/acre|
|Enrich||Ca, P, Fe, Zn Mg, Cu Co, Cr, Bo, Al as chelating salts||1 pack (2 k)/acre|
|Halonex||3 methyl,4 Alkyl two chain Brominated halogen Compound-6%w/w, Potentiser, Buffers, Stabilizers, Emulsifiers||Prawn and shrimp: 5 l/acreFish: 500 ml-1 l/acre|
|Jinong Humic Acid||Active humic acid, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Molybdenum Manganese, Iron, Zinc, Boron, Copper||1 l/acre|
|MPC||Extra pure MgCl2.6H2O, Potassium chloride and Sodium chloride fused||4-5 k/acre|
|Nutrisoft||EDTA concentrated aluminium dehydrated silicate stabilizers of ammonia, Fe hardness toxin binders and ammonia reducing agents||1 k/acre|
|Toxi Clean Aqua||SiO2-51%, Al2O3-32%, Fe2O3-3%, Na2O-3%, MgO-2%||10-20 k/acre of water|
|Ammo Curb||Extract of the plant Yucca schidigera and fortified with nitrifying bacteria (probiotic)||300-500 g/acre every 10 days when ammonia level increases|
|Ammo Trap||Minimum 10% of glyco components from Yucca schidigera concentrated extract||1 l/Ha every 2 weeks for ammonia removal|
|Ammo-Nil+||Salts of alkyl sulfonic acids with saponins||500 g/acre|
|BioCURB®Dry||Natural extract of plant Yucca schidigera, Ammonia binding agent and flavouring agent||1 k/Ha, thoroughly mixing with sand and sprinkling water|
|De-Odorase||Ammonia reducer (Yucca schidigera extract)||250-300 ml/Ha|
|De-odr||Yucca schidigera and reducing agents with stabilizers||Shrimp ponds: 500 ml/acreFish Ponds: 200 ml/Ha/1m water depth|
|Gardian||Yucca Schidigera plant extracts in suitable stabilizers and potentiators||200-300 ml/Ha in shrimp/Fish farm|
|Mex Yucca||100% natural pure Yucca schidigera||250-300 ml/acre for 1 m water|
|Odoban-A30||Yucca schidigera steroidalsaponins, Urease inhibitors with stabilizers and fillers||Pond preparation: 500 g/Ha, Food application: 1 g/k|
|Odocure||Spray dried Yucca schidigera extract powder with stabilizer||500 g/acre (3 ft depth, @ 15 days interval)|
|Sulphanil-H||Thiobacillus, Chlorobium, Disulfovibriodisulphuric acid||1 k/Ha for every month|
|Toxi-Clean Aqua||HSCAS (Zeolite) with YUCCA extract||Pond preparation: 50 k/acre For regular use: 10-20 k/acre|
|ModuloxTMTab||Sodium perborate and zeolite (catalyst) to improve oxygen level in aquatic pond||• If oxygen level is upto 3 ppm, use 1 k/Ha• If oxygen level is lower than 3 ppm, then use 3-5 k/Ha|
|O2 Marine||Long acting oxygen releasing tablets (Sodium perborate)||1 kg/Ha at low oxygen level|
|O2 Max||Fast acting oxygen releasing tablets for aqua culture ponds||Low oxygen level: 1 kg per hectare of pond, O2deficiency: 3-5 k per hectare of pond|
|Oxycal||Calcuim peroxide with stabilizers||2-3 k/acre|
|Oxy-Gen||100% disposable peroxide of Ca||1 k/Ha|
|Sodium percarbonate tab||Na2Co3.1.5H2O (MW 157.01)||500 g/Ha or 4 oz in a gallon of warm or hot water|
|Toximar||Mixture of natural zeolites for use in aquatic feed||For pond preparation: 40-50 k/acre,For culture pond usage: 10-20 k/acre|
Among fish diseases, parasitic infestations are major cause of concern in semi-intensive and extensive fish culture system. Ectoparasites are widely distributed infectious agent in freshwater fish which include single celled protozoan and multi-cellular trematodes, crustaceans and arthropods . These parasites induce high morbidity, retard growth and reduce the market value of both food fish and ornamental. Wide ranges of chemicals or formulations are being used by the fish farmers for the treatment of parasitic infestations caused by fish louse (Argulus spp.), gill flukes (Dactylogyrus sp.), Myxobolllus sp., ich (Ichthyophtherius sp.) and gill maggot (Ergasillus sp.). The drugs and chemicals commonly used to control parasitic infestations in fish culture have been presented in table 2. These included Nuvan, Butox Vet, Cliner, Ectodel (2.8%), Emamectin Benzoate (EB), Hitek Powder, Paracure-IV etc. Among these Butox Vet and Cliner has comparatively higher market demand than other products. However, there has been no official recommendation for use of such products in aquaculture, although many such products have been permitted for use in animal medicine and agriculture as insecticides. In European countries, the anti parasitic drugs that are mostly used to control the sea lice contain Dichlorvos, Azamethiphos, Hydrogen peroxide, Ivermectin, Emamectin, Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Teflubenzuron, and Diflubenzuron as the active ingredients . Although a number of products appear to be available to veterinarians and salmon farmers in European countries only a few are prescribed. Only Emamectin Benzoate (EB), has been used as medicated feed in all jurisdictions. In fact, EB is the only product used in Canada (under Emergency Drug Release) and the US (INAD) for control of parasitic infestations in fish .
|Trade Names||Active Ingredients||Dose and Dosage|
|Bancoxy-K||Amprolium hydrochloride 20% w/w, Menodione sodium bisulphite (0.2%)||30 g in 25-30 litres of drinking water|
|Paramed||Pentapropyl methyl-thio-benzimidazole carbamate 5%||1-1.2 k/ton feed for 3 Days|
|Nuvan||Dichlorvus tech. 83.0%, Xylene 8.0%, Epichlorohydrin 1.0%, Emulsifier 7.0%, Triethanonline 0.9%, Methylene Blue 0.1%||150 to 250 ml per acre|
|Decis||Deltamethrin 2.8% (W/W), Triglyceride, Stabilizer-Butylated hydroxyl toluene-1%||100 ml/acre|
|Hilmala||Malathion tech. 52.8% w/w, Stabilizer (Epichlorhydrin) -1% w/w, Emulsifier (Alkyl aryle sulphonate and polyoxy ethelene ether-5%, Aromex -41.2% w/w||Apply @ 0.05%|
|Starchlor||Dichlorovus-76% E.C.||150-400 ml/acre of crop field|
|Nivaard||Azadiractin 0.15%, (1500 PPM) Min||1 l/acre|
|ButoxVet||(Deltamethrin 1.25%)||20-30 ml/acre|
|Clinar||Cypermethrin||20-30 ml/acre meter of water|
|Ecto Del 2.8%||Deltamethrin E.C 2.8%||50-100 ml/acre pond 5 feet depth|
|Hitek powder||Ivermectin IP 1% w/w||Mix 200-250 of Powder with 1 ton of feed before feeding|
|Copper (II) Sulfate pentahydrate pure||Copper sulphate||1:2000 with water/acre|
|BROFINTM 5%||Bromine 5% w/v||5 l/Ha|
|Paracure – I.V||Ivermectin: 2% w/w||250 gm per ton of feed for 4 days|
|Dichlorvos-E.C. 76%||Dichlorvos-76%||150-250 ml/acre|
|Blue Caloxy||Calcium peroxide 75%||1 kg per ton of feed or 1-2 kg/0.1 Ha|
A wide range of chemicals are available for use in aquaculture as disinfectant and as a measure of better health management. The comprehensive range of antimicrobial disinfectants or sanitizers with their active ingredients, commonly marketed for fish health management have been presented in table 3. Some of the commonly used chemical preparations were Virgo, Germicida, Ecodyne, Viranil, Mizuphor, Bionex-80, Sokrena-WS, methylene blue, formalin, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, copper sulphate, malachite green etc. Besides these, Bleaching powder, Aquakleen, Bkc Plus (Benzalkonium chloride), Novir, Polydard+, Formalin, etc. were by fish farmers for disease treatment. Formalin is also used to control protozoan parasite infestation and BKC is used for controlling bacterial disease (Table 3). Formalin, has been approved by the US FDA for use in aquaculture. However, when applied to ponds, it can kill phytoplankton and cause oxygen depletion. Formalin apparently reacts with ammonia to form hexamethylene-triamine and possibly formamide, a toxic substance to aquatic ecosystem . Other researchers have also reported use of such chemicals in pond culture and in hatchery operations [14,18]. Sharker et al.,  reported use of Efinol for stress management and a variety of disinfectants in different aquaculture operations in Bangladesh. These were mostly used in hatchery, grow-out systems and cleaning of for equipment and materials to maintain hygiene and to control pathogen load , as also observed in the present survey.
|Trade Names||Active Ingredients||Dose and Dosage|
|Virgo||Potassium monopersulphate 50% w/w containing triple salt of hydrogen sulphate and potassium sulphate||0.5-1 kg/acre during pond preparationHatcheries: 5-10 ppm for disinfection|
|Germicida||Powder of sodium chloride and salt containing potassium Monopersulphate, potassium hydrogen sulphate||Preparation stage: 1 kg/acreGrow out stage: 0.5 kg/acre|
|Ecodyne||Polyvinyl pyrolidone iodine complex with 20% activity, Stabilizers, Emusifiers||250-350 ml/acre foot of pond water|
|Viranil||Potassium monopersulfate, Potassium sulphate, Potassium hydrogen sulphate, Color : Tartrazine||5-10 g/ton of water in hatchery1-2 k/acre of pond|
|Citromax||Natural organic compounds, Lactic ferments, Traces of Ascorbic acid, Palmitic acid, Mannose, Glucose, Glycerides, Fatty acids, Amino acids, Citris bioflavonoides, Tocopherols and Carrier||0.5 g/kg of feed on daily basis for normal application. In case of bacterial or fungal infection-1 g/kg of feed for 5 days|
|Wgd Care||Extract of B. subtills, L. planatarum,, Streptomyces rimosus, 1-Cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7, (1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid, Chemical adjuvants, Herbal Synergisers, Mineral components||In Feed:Preventive: 2 ml/10 kg once in 15 daysCurative: 1 ml/kg one day In pond waterPreventive: 100 ml/acre once in 15 daysCurative: 400 ml/acre one day|
|Mizuphor||Alkyl aryl polyoxyethylene iodine complex which provides essential plus 10% iodine along with buffering and emulsifying agent||Shrimp/prawn pond: 2-3 l/Ha (1m water depth)|
|Bionex-80||Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride: 80%||Shrimp pond: (<5 gm size): 500 ml-1 l/acre, >5 gm size: 1-2 l/acreFish pond: 1-2 l/acre|
|Bactovirnil||• Potassium monopersulphate• Sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate• Malic acid||2 kg/Ha during culture period, twice in a month Hatchery: 5 ppm for reservoir water in Tanks: 1 ppm, repeat every 4 days|
|Sokrena-Ws||Didecyledimethyle ammonium chloride||5-10 l/Ha pond at 1 mt depth or @ 0.5-1 ppm (i.e., 0.5-1 ml in 1000 l)|
|Potassium permanganate||Potassium permanganate||20 g/10 l water and spray or dip treat|
|Benzalkonium chloride (50%)||Benzalkonium chloride-50%||0.5 ppm|
|Blesson||Benzalkonium chloride||Ponds: 2-4 l/ha, 1 m water depth)|
|Broot 5X (Bromine)||Tetradecyletrimethyle ammonium bromide, Alkylbenzyledimethyle ammonium chloride, Nonyle phenol ethoxylate||1 l/acre (For juveniles till 8-10 g size) 2 l/acre (above 10 gm size)|
|Malachite green (M.S)||Malachite Green||Dip: 66.7-100 mg/l, Bath: 6.7 mg/l|
|Protect||Alkyl dimethyl benzal ammonium chloride 50% w/v||500 ml/acre foot of water|
|Steridol p.f.||Nonyle alkyl phenoxy choline, Ethelene oxide iodine complex (providing 2% I2)||Hatcheries: 20 ml/l water (2%) Prawn tank: 500 ml/acreFish tank: 1 l/acre|
|Formaldehyde solution-37-41% w/v||A colourless aqueous solution of formaldehyde in deionized water stabilized with 15% methyl alcohol||For prolonged bath: 15-25 mg/lFor short term bath: 250 mg/l or 1 ml/gallon of water|
|Biolin plus||Each 100 gm contains: Formaldehyde solution I.P-7.5 mlStrong glutaraldehyde solution B.P-7.5 mlBenzalkonium chloride solution I.P-5.0 ml||5 l/Ha in 1 metre water depth|
|Bkc plus||Dimethyl Benzyle ammonium chloride-50%||1 l/acre|
|Novir||Triple salt containing: Potassium- peroxomonosulphate, Sodiumdodecyle-benzenesulphate, Sulphamic acid||500-750 g/acre once in 15 days|
|Polgard+||3 methyl, 4 alkyl 2 chain brominated halogen compound, Buffers and Stabilisers and Emulsifier||1 l/acre feet level of pond water|
|Glyphogan||Glyphosate 41% SL||2-3 l/Ha|
Furthermore, it was observed that farmers frequently use various combinations of microbial preparations as feed-probiotics and water remediation, for regular maintenance of fish health and pond environment (Table 4). Some of the probiotics used in feed included Y-Max, Novib, Lactoplus, Biovet-Yc, Yea Sacc, Gold Yeast and Saccharolact and some water probiotics included Bio-Trim, Thiomax, Optibact, B4, Terragard-SP, Uni-Proclean, EcoTech, Optima, Eco Taxnil, Sludg Nil, Bioclear etc. Probiotics are the preparations of microbial organisms and yeasts having beneficial effects in nutrient utilization, promoting digestion, growth and enhancement of immune response in the host body . Gram positive spore forming Bacillus spp. is the major constituents in most of the commonly used probiotics in fish farming . Some research trials have indicated immuno-stimulatory effect of probiotics in several species of freshwater fish [8,36]. Use of probiotics as eco-friendly substitute to antibiotics and other drugs, have found common application in disease management in aquaculture. Probiotic formulations contained wide range of beneficial bacterial strains including Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Nitrosomonas sp. Aspergillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Clostridium sp., Rhodococcus sp., Rhodobacter sp., and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although a wide range of products containing different combinations of above probiotic organisms in different combinations were marketed in high demand, the authenticity and quality of such products could not be verified. A significant observation made was that the use of such probiotic products have significantly increased in last few years, mostly in shrimp culture practices and their application in grow-out carp culture is also increasing. Many such products were manufactured locally, packed and sold with attractive packages, most of the products did not mention the types and quantity of organisms contained in such products. However, such products were in high demand in all aquaculture zones, indicating their effectiveness, although the utility of such products have not been scientifically proved.
|Trade Names||Active Ingredients||Dose and Dosage|
|Y-Max||Saccharomyces cerevisiae,Saccharomyces boulardil||5 g/k feed|
|Novib||Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-3.5 × 106B cereus-12.5 × 106Excipients: q.s||2-3 k/Ha based on the degree of vibrio infection or 10 g/kg feed if given through feed|
|Lacto plus||Each kg Contains: Lactobacillus (60,000 million CFU Yeast culture, Betaine amylases, Proteases, Lipases B-Complex and Minerals||Shrimp: 5-8 g/k feedFish: 3-5 g/k feed|
|Biovet-Yc||Saccharomyces Bolardii-30,000 millionLactobacillus acidophilus-45000 millionSaccharomyces ceraevisiae-300000 million CFU, Alpha amylase-5 g, Sea weed powder-100 g||1.5 k/ton feed|
|Yea Sacc||Live yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain)- 10%||100 g/ton feed|
|Saccharolact||Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. caseiL. buulgaricus, Streptococcus lactisBacillus subtillis, Saccharomyces cereviseae varieties-1012 CFU/g||50 g/m feed mass/as directed by the nutritionist|
|Bio-Trim||Bacillus sp-107 CFU/g||2-3 k/Ha|
|Actisaf sc 47||Saccharomyces cerevisiae||3 g to 10 g/animal/day|
|Gold Yeast||Saccharomyces cerevisiae||500 g/ton of feed in all complete rations|
|Thiomax||Bacillus subtillis, B. lichenformis, B. polymyxa, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, B. spec (TF2), Nitrosomonas, Nitrobactor, Thiobacillus spp. and micronutrients||Prawn and Shrimp: 2-3 k/acre|
|Optibact||Bacillus sutilis, circulans,, megatherium, polymixa-4.5 × 1010 CFU/g, Thiobacilus, thiooxidans, Denitrifians-4 × 1010 CFU/g, Nitrosomans and Nitrobactor-4 × 1010CFU/g, Rhodococcus and Rhodobacter-4.5 × 1010 CFU/g||300-400 g/acre|
|B4||Bacillus species (>5 × 1010 CFU/g) working in all kinds of aquaculture systems in all salinities and temperatures||Pond water: 200 g/acre/weekFeeding: 2 g/k feed|
|Pond Dtox||H2S Oxidising bacteria (Paracoccus pantotrophus)-3.1 × 109 CFU/g||Culture: 1 k/10000 m2If water becomes Black with bad odour: 1stApplication- 2 k/10000 m2and 2nd application after 3-4 days-(1 k/10000m2)|
|Terra Gard-SP||Soil probiocs in Thiobacillus and Bacillus species in the natural carrier with adjuvants||1-2 k/acre|
|Uni-Proclean||Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. megatherium, B. Polymixa, B. firmis, B. mesentricus, Cellulomonascartae, Pediococcus , Aspergillusoryzae, Perococcusdenitrifican||500 g/HaNLT 20 billion CFU/g|
|Super Biotic||Bacillus spp. 107 CFU/g||3-5 k/Ha/week|
|Clean Bot||Aspergillus awamori, Daedaleaflavidaa, Trichoderma reesei, Cellulomonas spp,Pseudomonas spp||500 g/acre every 15 days|
|Eco Tech||Bacillus subtillis- 5 × 1010 CFU/g, B. licheniforms-3 × 1010 CFU/g, B. meghatherium-6 × 1010 CFU/g,B. Thiobacillusthioxidin-109 CFU/g, B. Nitrobactor, Nitrosomonas-107 CFU/gRhodococus-1 × 1011 CFU/g||200-250 g/acre|
|Optima||Contains high density CFU of Bacillus subtills, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus polyxa ,Bacillus pumilus, Lactobacillus sporogenies, and denitrifying bacteria||1 k/Ha|
|PH Fixer||Bacillus species 108 CFU/g, Microbial media and buffer mixes||4 k/Ha thrice|
|Eco Toxnil||Bacillus sp. (5 × 109 CFU/g)-5.0 gBacillus thermodenitrificans (5 × 109 CFU/g)-9.0 g||400 g/acre|
|Sludg Nil||Strains of Rhodococcus sp., Rhodobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Cellulomona sp., Aspergillus sp., and Pseudomonas sp||Culture ponds:12-24 cakes/acre|
|Bio Clear||Zeolite containing Bacillus sp., Nitrobacter sp., Cellulomonas sp. and Acetobacter||Pond: 5 k/acre, once every fortnight|
|Biofloc||High density water and soil probiotic specially designed for aquaculture (12 billion CFU/g)||Fish ponds: 100-200 g/acreHatchery: 30-50 g/10 ton of water|
|Toxoff||Combination of stabilized and lyophilized probiotics like B. subtilis, Lactobacillus lacyis and Thiobacillus versutus||1 k/Ha|
|Nitrocare-Lq||Yucca schidigera, Aloevera, Bacillus subtillus, Bacillus polymyxin, Bacillus linchcniformis, Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, Pseudomonas||1 k per hectare-Mix with pond water and apply uniformly|
|Pond Fresh||Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. Pumilus, Lactobacillus lactis and Rhodobacter||3-5 k/acre or as directed by Aqua culturist|
|Bio Balance=C:N||Bacillus subtillis, Lactobacilus pentoues, Arthrobactor, Rhodococcus, Nitrosomonas Nitrobactor, Thiobacillus, Bacillus liquifaecious||2 l/acre|
|Cura Mid||Nitrosomonas sp, Nitrobacter sp, Bacillus sp, Aerobacter sp, Cellulomonas sp. Fortified with bio-active compounds||12-24 cakes/acre based on Days of Culture (DOC) or as advised by aquaculture consultant|
|Thiopro-Ds||Most potent soil probiotic containingThree species of Thiobacillus sp, Nitrosomonas, Nitrobactor||250 g/acre|
In aquaculture, feed is one of the important component and constitutes approximately 50-60% of total cost of aquaculture production. Accordingly, farmers use a range of feed supplements along with farm made or floating feed for wellbeing of farmed animals. Growth promoters are the compounds chemical or biological substances supplemented in fish feed for fattening, effective utilization of feed, providing better immunity, regulating the intestinal micro flora and increasing the vitality of fish . Several such substances/products were found in use to enhance the growth rate of fish in India. Among these different feed supplements containing essential micro and macro minerals, vitamins, proteins or amino acids were frequently used as growth promoters. There are 10 essential amino acids in fish species viz. arginine, methionine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine. Among these, the limiting amino acids are mainly lysine and methionine which should either be supplemented through the feed or provided from the aquaculture environment . A wide range of feed supplements which are commonly used by fish farmers and hatchery operators in India, included Frankzole, Liv52 Protec, MV24, Star Shrimp, Kalvimin Gold, K-Max, Survivor, Calmag, EnvoMin, Agrimin, Super food etc., (Table 5). Whereas most of the products are imported and locally mixed, there are number of feed-mills located in Andhra Pradesh, which manufacture feed for fish and shrimp culture. Use of farm made feed is also gaining importance. A significant observation in the survey was many farmers especially in commercial grow-out cultures, were not using commercial-grade feed but purely relying on locally available rice bran or Deoiled Rice Bran (DORB) mixed with limited quantity of oil cakes (5-10%) with or without vitamin and mineral mixtures. Sharker et al.,  reported use of different growth promoter in Bangladesh aquaculture, to enhance fish production which included Megavit Aqua, Aqua Boost, Aqua Savor, Vitamin premix, Fibosoel, Grow fast, Orgavit auqa, AQ-Cell, AQ Grow-G, Fish vita plus, AQ Grow-L, Nature Aqua GP, Vitamix, F Aqua, AC mix and many more .
|Trade Names||Active Ingredients||Dose and Dosage|
|Frankzole||Vitamin-A, D3, E, K3, C, B1, B2, B4, B12, Folic acid Biotin, DL-methionine, L-Lysine, Inositol, Zn, Co, Se, SiO2||1 k/acre|
|Liv-52 Protec||Each 10 ml contains: extracts ofSarapunka-47.5 mg, Bhumyamalaki-43.75 mg, Arjuna-33.75 mg, Yavatikta-31.25 mg, Kakamachi-25 mg, Nimba-25 mg, Punarnava-25 mg, Bhringaraja-18.75 mg||Fish/Shrimp- 20 ml/k feed (up to 10 week age)50 ml/k feed (above 11week age)|
|MV24||Highly Bio available Vitamins (A, D3, E, K3, C, B1, B2, B5, B6, B7, B8, B9, B12 & Choline), Minerals (Calcium, Phosphorus, Cobalt, Copper, Manganese, Zinc, Potassium, Iodine), Amino acids (DL-Methionine and L-Lysine)||Fish-2 to 3 g per kg of feedPrawn-2 to 5 g per kg of feed|
|Lipidex||Lipids and Amino acids, Vitamin A, C, E, B12, Liver oil||20 ml/k of feed|
|Intramin-Ol||Nitrogen: 3.000 mg/ml; Phosphorus: 2.05 mg/mlCalcium: 30 mg/ml, Zn: 210 mg/ml, Fe: 110 mg/ml, Mg: 1100 mg/ml, Cu: 98-120 mg/mlAqueous media: Q.S.||5-10 ml/k of feed|
|Star Shrimp||Growth promoter of organic chelated essential macro and trace minerals in organic form (Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, Mg, S, Zn, Fe, Co, Cu, Mn)||Shrimp: 10 g per 1 k feed1-2 days before and after moultingFish: 500 g - 2 k/ton feed|
|Venribee-Plus||Vit B-Complex with Vit-E||20-2 g/100 k fed|
|Kalvimin Gold||Each kg containsCa-260 g, P-130 g, Mg-6 g, Mn-1.5 g, Fe-1.5 g, I2-325 g, Cu-4.2 g, Cn-9.6 g, Co-150 mg, S-7.2 g, K=100 mg, Na-5.9 mg, Se-10 mg, Vit-A=700000 IU, Vit-D3=70000 IU, Vit-E=250 mg, Nicotinamide-1g, Biotin-550 mcg, Lactobacillus sporogenies=15 × 1010 CFU||1 k per 100 k of feed|
|Grovit-C||Each gram contains vitamin-C 500 mg stabilizers, anti oxidants and proper base||1 to 1.5 g/kg feed|
|Survivor||Mixture of short and medium chain monoglycerides and organic acids : Monocaprin, Monocaprilin, Monolaurin, Monobutyrin||7-8 ml/k feed in minimum of 2 meals/day|
|Antacid||Organic acids, Antioxidants, Organic selenium, Mannan, Oligosaccharides with Alium sativum||5-10 g/k feed|
|K-Max||Enriched Potassium, Chloride and other nutrients||During culture-10 to 20 k/ha/week|
|Novumin||Mineral concentration in 1 kgOrganic Zn 40 g (4 %), Organic Cu 20 g (2 %), Organic Mn 40 g (4%), Organic Se 0.3 g (.03%), Guaranteed methionine activity-54 g (54 %)||Farm: 5-10 g/k of feed,Hatcheries: 1-2 g/k of fed|
|Calmag||Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42− and other minerals||40 to 60 k/Ha/week|
|Envo Min||Complex mixture of essential micronutrients in inert from with Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Sodium and Potassium. Enrich with Ammonia Acids and high quality growth promoters.||Culture: 10 -15 g/k of feedFor pond preparation: 25 k/acre|
|Growel||Vitamins like A, E, D3, B1, B2, B6, B12, Niacin, Pantothenic acid, Folic Acid, Vitamin-C etc.||Shrimp- 5 to 8 g/k of feed regularly|
|Aqua Vit-C||Bio available coated vitamin-C||Shrimp: 1.0 g/k feed|
|Hydrovit C2||Each gram contains: Vitamin-C-350 mg, Hepato pancreatic stimulants-100 mg, Growth promoting factors-250 mg||Shrimp: 10 g/k feedFish: 5 g/k feed|
|Agrmin Forte||Vit-A=7 lakh IU, D3=70000 IU, E=250 mg, Nicotinamide-1 mg, Co-150 mg, Cu-1200 mg, I2-325 mg, Fe-1500 mg, Mg-6000 mg, Mn-1500 mg||1 k-2 kg to be mixed in 1000 k feed|
|Agrimin||Co-150 mg, Cu-1200 mg, I2-325 mg, Fe-5000 mg, Mg-6000 mg, Mn-1500 mg, K-100 mg, Na-5.9 mg, S-0.922%, Zn-9600 mg, DL-Methionine-1920 mg||1-2 k mixed in 100 k feed|
|Him-C||Methyl paraben sodium, Propyl paraben sodium||For Fish/Prawn: 5-10 g/k of Feed|
|Kalvimin Forte||Vit A, D2, D3, E, B12, Ca, Cal-pantothenate and Ca, P, Mn, I2, Fe, Zn, Cu and antioxidants||2.5 k/ton of feed|
|Super Food||Zinc, Magnesium, Boron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Calcium, Potassium etc.||1 l/acre water depth 4ft|
|Jinong Sea Weed||Seaweed oligosaccharide, Mannitol, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potash, Alginate acid, Amino acid and Minerals||1.5 kg-2.5 kg per acre of pond water|
|Osmin||Ca=30%, P=9%, Mg=0.12%, Fe-0.6%, I2=0.1%, Cu=0.02%, Cloride=0.05%, Zn=0.2%, Lysine=0.2%, D-methionine=1.92%, Thiamine=50 mg, Riboflavin=66 mg, Niacin=330 mg, Vit B6=26.67 mg, Folic acid=2000 mcg, Vit B12=10 mcg, Biotin=500 mcg, Pantothenic acid=20 mg, Chitosan=12 g||5-10 g/k of feed|
Antibiotics with different trade names were seen in the market and used by the farmers in disease management as preventive and control methods, the list of which has been shown in table 6. These included Oxymycin, Enrox, Hydrodox, Lixen Oxytetracycline, Hostacyline Vet, Cifintas AQ etc. These antibiotics were used for treating the bacterial red disease or ulcer disease, bacterial hemorrhagic septicaemia and also useful in control of Aeromoniasis, Pseudomonas wound infections and control of enteric septicemia of catfish caused by Edwardsiella ictaluristrains. It has been shown that antibacterial are the main course in juvenile or larval stages of aquatic animal production as prophylactic agents [25,29,39]. Among antibiotics, oxytetracycline has been the most widely used antibiotics in aquaculture practices [19,40]. Chowdhury et al.,  reported that the antibiotics like Renamycin (Oxytetracycline) had significantly controlled the bacterial infection when used at a dose rate of 50 mg/kg body wt/day for 3-5 days with 80-90% efficacy. Rao et al.,  indicated Oxytetracycline, Sulfadiazine and Trimethoprim combination was the most popular chemotherapeutants in freshwater aquaculture and hatchery systems in India, although their present use has been limited because of lowered efficacy. At therapeutic levels antibiotics are often administered for short periods in feed to groups of fish that share common tanks or cages.
|Trade Names||Active Ingredients||Dose and Dosage|
|Oxymycin||Oxytetracycline HCL IP||Fish - 100 g/200 k of feed for 5-7 days,Prawns - 2-4 g/k feed for 5-7 days|
|Enrox||Fluoroqunolone||Prevention : 5 g/k feed for 7 days, Disease-10 g/k feed continuously for 3 days|
|Lixen Powder||Each g contains Anhydrous Cephalexin: 75 mg||35-50 mg per k Biomass|
|Hydrodox||Doxycycline: 100 mg, Ascorbic acid: 80 mg||100 g/ton biomass|
|Oxytetracycline soluble powder I.P (Vet.)||Each 4 g contains: OTC-200 mg||3.5-7 g/100 Pound biomass|
|Cefintas Aq||Cephalexin - 7.5 % w/w||7.5-10 mg/k body weight orally|
Besides food-fish production, aqua-drugs, chemicals and antibiotics have got large scale application in ornamental fisheries. In recent years, the increased development of ornamental fish culture in many states, has opened up problems of disease and water quality deteriorations in ornamental fishes. Ornamental fishery is becoming a billion dollar industry in India having great export potential. Disease causing factors in aquarium or ornamental-fish ponds are mostly due to poor food, rapid fluctuation in water temperature, lack of oxygen or some other adverse conditions . The details of anti-parasitic, anti-fungal and antibiotics etc., used in ornamental fisheries have been presented table 7 and 8. Most of ornamental fish varieties are normally procured from neighbouring Asian counties to India mainly through legal and illegal means. Ornamental fisheries have been the source of exotic bacterial and viral pathogens that has mandated strict quarantine regulations. Occurrence of viral diseases like Cyprinid Herpesvius-2 (CyHV-2), Koi Rana Virus (KIRV), Carp Edema Virus (CEV), Megalocytiviris and Goldfish haematopoietic virus necrosis herpes have recently been reported in ornamental fish culture . In addition, koi sleepy disease caused by CEV was reported in Cyprinus carpio . Because of the fact that there are no strict guidelines in ornamental fisheries, a wide range of chemicals, antimicrobial agents, insecticides and antibiotics, are being used by farmers and ornamental fish operators to control disease problems.
|Agent||Dosage and Route||Parasites/Pathogens|
|A. Anti-parasitic agents|
|Acetic acid, Glacial||2 ml/l × 30-40 s bath||Trematode, Crustacean ectoparasites|
|Chloramine-T||Prolonged bath 10-15 mg/l, repeat after 48 h||Protozoal and some Monogenean infections|
|Copper sulphate||100 mg/l for 1-5 min bath. Maintain free copper iron levels at 0.15-0.2 mg/l as permanent bath||Marine fish ectoparasites|
|Diflubenzuron (Dimilin â)||0.01 mg/l permanent bath for 6 days × 3 treatments||Crustacean ectoparasites|
|Fenbendazole||2 mg/l permanent bath 7 days × 3 treatments,50 mg/k orally, in feed||Non-encysted intestinal nematodes|
|Formalin (37% Formaldehyde)||0.125-0.25 ml/l up to 60 min bath 0.015-0.025 ml/ permanent bath × 2-3 days||Ectoparasites|
|Ivermectin||0.1-0.2 mg/k i.m.||Lernaea|
|Leteux- Meyer Mixture||Stock solution (Malachite green 3.3 g/l Formalin) Use 0.015 ml/l bath × 3treatments||Protozoal ectoparasites|
|Levamisole||1-2 mg/l × 24 h bath||Internal nematodes|
|Malachite green||50-60 mg/l × 10-30 s bath;0.1 mg/l permanent bath for 3days100 mg/l topical to skin lesions||Protozoal infection in fresh water fish|
|Mebendazole||1 mg/l × 24 h bath||Monogenean trematodes|
|Mebendazole + Closantel||(Use Mebendazole 75 mg/l + Closantel 50 mg/l e.g., Supavermâ) 1ml/400 l × 1||Monogenean trematodes|
|Metronidazole||25 mg/l permanent bath for 48 h × 3 treatments100 mg/k in feed × 3 days||Internal flagellates (e.g., Hexamita Spironucleus)|
|Piperazine||10 mg/k in feed × 3days||Non-encysted intestinal nematodes|
|Potassium permanganate||100 mg/l × 5-10 min bath2 mg/l permanent bath||Fresh water protozoal and Crustacean ectoparasites|
|Praziquantel||2-10 mg/l up to 4 h bath × 3 treatments;5-12 g/k feed for 5days||Monogenean trematodes ectoparasites, Cestodes|
|Salt (Sodium chloride)||1-5 g/l permanent bath30-35 g/l × 4-5 min bath||Fresh water protozoal ectoparasites|
|Toltrazuril||30 mg/l × 60 min × 3 treatment||Myxozoans|
|Trichlorphon||0.5 mg/l permanent bath or 0.5-1.0 mg/l permanent bath × 10 days||Crustacean ectoparasites|
|B. Antifungal agents:|
|Formalin (37% Formaldehyde)||1-2 ml/l bath, up to 15 min0.23 ml/l bath, up to 60 min||Mycotic infections on eggs (do not treat within 24 h of hatching|
|Itraconazole||1-10 mg/k daily in feed for 1-7 days||Systemic mycoses|
|Malachite green||1-2 mg/l × 30-60 min bath0.1 mg/l permanent bath, 1% topical to skin lesions||Mycotic infections in fresh water fish|
|Agent||Dosage and route||Indications|
|Acriflavine||500 mg/l × 30 min bath5-10 mg/l prolonged bath||Skin bacterial infections|
|Amoxycillin||40-80 mg/k in feed for 10 days|
|Chloramine -T||15.0-20 mg/l for prolonged bath, repeat after 48 h if necessary||Treatment of bacterial gill disease, fin rot|
|Enrofloxacin||2.5-5.0 mg/l × 5 h bath5-10 mg/k orally for 10-15 days||Skin bacterial infections, Red disease, Ulcers|
|Erythromycin||100 mg/k orally, in feed × 10day||Generalized bacterial infection|
|Kanamycin||50-100 mg/l × 5 h bath50 mg/k in feed for 14 days||Generalized bacterial infection|
|Methylene blue||2 mg/l prolonged bath||Treatment of bacterial gill disease, Fin rot|
|Nifurpiriniol(Furanaceâ)||1-2 mg/l × 30 min to 6 h bath0.1 mg/l prolonged bath4-10 mg/k in feed for 5 days||Generalized bacterial infection|
|Nitrofurazone||100 mg/l × 30 min bath2-5 mg/l prolonged bath for 5-10 days||Generalized bacterial infection|
|Oxytetracycline||10-100 mg/l × 1 h bath55-83 mg/l in feed × 10 days||Generalized infections|
|Potassium permanganate||5 mg/l × 30-60 min bath2 mg/l permanent bath||Broad spectrum anti-septic|
|Povidone-iodine||Topical application to wounds||Broad spectrum activity|
|Sulphadimethoxine and Ormetoprim(Rometâ)||50 mg/k in feed × 5 days||Broad spectrum activity|
|Sulphadizine and Trimethoprim(Aquatrim)||20 mg/l × 5-12 h bath30 mg/k in feed × 7-10 days||Broad spectrum activity|
|Sulphadoxine and Trimethoprim||75 mg/k i.m × 8-12 days||Broad spectrum activity|
In the present study, data on 364 aqua-drugs and chemicals were collected, out of which 216 products in Andhra Pradesh, followed by 98 products in Odisha, 28 products in Jharkhand and 22 products in Chhattisgarh. Out of these maximum number (31%) of aqua-medicines, drugs and chemicals used belonged to feed supplements and growth promoters group, followed by probiotics (24%), water quality improvement products (18%), antiseptics and sanitizers (13%), anti-parasitic drugs (10%) and least numbers were antibiotics (4%) (Figure 1). This is in contrast to aqua-drug use pattern during 1994-1998, when antimicrobials (antiseptics, sanitizers and antibiotics) constituted more than 50% of total products (based on our previous survey, unpublished data), which were mainly used in newly developing shrimp aquaculture in coastal Indian States . Decline in tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon culture led to development of improved methods of carp culture, thus leading to enhanced application drugs and chemicals in carp culture. Furthermore, variation in usage pattern of aqua-medicines, drugs and chemicals were observed in different states like in Andhra Pradesh (Figure 2), Chhattisgarh (Figure 3), Jharkhand (Figure 4) and in Odisha (Figure 5), which was dependant on culture practices revalent in respective regions. A significant observation, was that probiotics constituted maximum (31%) products in Andhra Pradesh followed by 28% feed supplements and only 2% of products belonged to antibiotics category (Figure 2). This indicated that fish farmers in Andhra Pradesh, being considered innovative and economically advanced, were relying more on probiotic products than on antibiotics, specifically in shrimp (Penaeus vennamei) culture. Again, marketing and use of antibiotics could not be observed in Chhattisgarh, although use of antiseptics/ sanitizers and probiotics were noted (Figure 3). Maximum aqua-products (50%) belonged to feed supplement category (Figure 3). The usage pattern was almost similar both in Jharkhand and Odisha, although more number of antiseptics and sanitizers were used in Jharkhand, may be due to their application in cage culture (Figure 4). In Odisha, the usage pattern of aqua-medicines, drugs and chemicals has shown increasing trend in last few years (Figure 5), mainly due to rapid development of carp and shrimp culture in the state.
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Citation:Mishra SS, Das R, Das BK, Choudhary P, Rathod R, et al. (2017) Status of Aqua-medicines, Drugs and Chemicals Use in India: A Survey Report. J Aquac Fisheries 1: 004.
Copyright: © 2017 Mishra SS, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.