Journal of Aquaculture & Fisheries Category: Aquaculture Type: Research Article

Status of Aqua-medicines, Drugs and Chemicals Use in India: A Survey Report

Mishra SS1*, Choudhary P1, Debbarma J1, Sahoo SN1, Barua A1, Giri BS 2, Swain P1, Das R1, Das BK3, Rathod R2, Sahu A1 and Patil PK4
1 Fish Health Management Division, ICAR-Central Institute Of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA), Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
2 Regional Centre Of Icar Central Institute Of Freshwater Aquaculture, Poranki, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
3 Icar Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
4 Icar Central Institute Of Brackishwater Aquaculture Ciba, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India

*Corresponding Author(s):
Mishra SS
Fish Health Management Division, ICAR-Central Institute Of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA), Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
Tel:+91 7894281261,
Email:ss_mishra60@yahoo.co.uk

Received Date: Jul 25, 2017
Accepted Date: Sep 19, 2017
Published Date: Oct 13, 2017

Abstract

Survey was performed to assess the availability and use of different commercial grade aqua-medicines, drugs and chemicals in aquaculture activities in the selected key districts of four aquaculture dominant states of India viz., Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. A total of 265 farms, 36 aqua shops, and 18 drug manufacturer units were surveyed and information collected. Data were collected through stratified random sampling techniques using key Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools like standard questionnaire, personal interview, market survey, and group discussion, fish health camp and awareness programme with fish farmers, entrepreneurs and fish seed hatchery owners. Besides these views of State Fishery Departmental staff, retailers of aqua-medicines, drug inspectors and representatives of pharmaceutical companies were also taken. Six categories of aqua drugs and chemicals were found to be used by the fish farmers and hatchery owners which included those used for i) water quality management, ii) anti-parasitic drugs, iii) disinfectants or sanitizers, iv) water and feed probiotics, v) feed supplements and growth promoters and vi) antibiotics. Highest proportions of products used in aquaculture were assessed to be those used for feed supplements and growth promoters (31%) followed by water and feed probiotics (24%). Other products included were those chemicals and formulations used for water quality management (18%), disinfectants and sanitizers (13%), anti-parasitic drugs (10%) and antibiotics (4%). Furthermore, the survey revealed most farmers and end users lack knowledge and information on the quality and utility of such aqua-drugs and chemicals and they are mostly dependent on local consultants or representatives for their application in aquaculture. Again, some of the drugs and chemicals used in animal medicine and agricultural practices have made their way in aquaculture application. Besides these, various other anthropogenic activities have led to release of large quantities of drugs, chemicals, pesticides and antibiotics into aquatic system, mainly through human wastes and agricultural runoff. Unregulated use of such antibiotics and chemicals may lead to development and spread of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and all that may induce a negative impact on human, fish and the environment. So, the policy makers, researchers and scientists should work together in addressing the issues of irrational use of such drugs and chemicals in aquaculture with the view to lessen the unseen impacts on aquaculture in future days.

Keywords

Antibiotics; Aquaculture; Aqua-medicines; Chemicals; Drugs; Fish culture; Shrimp farming

INTRODUCTION

Fisheries has been an age old practice in India and has become an important economic activity. Aquaculture had its origin in the eastern States of India, mainly in states like West Bengal, Assam, Bihar and Odisha. The culture practices were restricted to the homestead ponds with traditional methods and for their family requirement. The traditional system of yester years fisheries, gradually developed into modern methods of aquaculture in India [1]. The vibrancy of the sector can be assessed by nearly 11-fold increase in fish production in just six decades, i.e., from 0.75 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 9.6 million tonnes during 2012-2013 [2]. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many states, providing livelihood security to rural poor, mainly in coastal communities [3]. This has relieved pressure on capture fisheries, harvest of wild stock from rivers, lakes, oceans and other open-water resources [3-4]. Fish has a nutritional profile superior to all terrestrial meat, being an excellent source of high quality animal protein and highly digestible energy, as well as an extremely rich source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. At present, fish represents the primary and cheap source of animal protein, contributing more than 25% of the total animal protein supply for about one billion people worldwide [5]. 

In recent years, there has been a noteworthy expansion of aquaculture in India. Much of this development has been focused on states like Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Punjab, where commercial carp culture is gaining momentum. In Andhra Pradesh, commercial aquaculture was initiated in the Kolleru lake region of Andhra Pradesh and recent growth of the sector around Kolleru lake and the surrounding districts like in East Godavari, West Godavari and Krishna, has put this region as the epicentre of Indian aquaculture. Besides, modern aquaculture has made rapid growth in eastern part of India like in Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand states. With the increase in aquaculture practices leading to enhanced fish production, aquatic animals have come across a series of health menaces due to environmental stress, incursion of infectious pathogens and increased incidence of fish disease outbreaks [6,7]. Incidence of different bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic diseases have been reported in aquaculture in India [8,9] and other Asian countries [5,10-11]. This has led to enhancement in application of a wide range of aqua–medicines, drugs and chemicals in aquaculture to control production loss [12-18]. Besides their use in fish health management, aquaculture drugs and chemicals play key role in various other aquaculture activities like in pond construction, soil and water management, enhancement of natural aquatic productivity, feed formulation and growth [19-23]. A large numbers so called aquaculture consultants and representatives of pharmaceuticals and feed companies and chemical sellers are involved in marketing chain, for delivery of such products to end users [24]. Serious concern has been raised by different international organizations over misuse or abuse of these chemicals, often leading to development of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) leading to public health hazard [21,25-29]. However, so far no appropriate research or systematic survey have been carried out in India, to understand the marketing and availability of various aqua-medicines, drugs and chemicals for application in aquaculture. Therefore, the present survey was carried out to assess the market availability and use pattern of various aqua-medicines, drugs, chemicals and formulations in major aquaculture zones in India and to understand the linkage between drug producers, consultants and fish farmers. Besides these, efforts have been made to review and correlate aqua-drugs and chemicals use pattern in other aquaculture producing nations and guidelines of international organizations on responsible use of such drugs and chemicals in aquaculture.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area

Data for the present survey were collected for a period of two year from aquaculture dominant states in India viz., Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. In Odisha, nine districts viz., Khurda, Puri, Kendrapada, Cuttack, Angul, Sambalpur, Balasore, Mayurbhanj, Bhadrak and in Andhra Pradesh, Vizianagaram, Srikakulam, Vijayawada, Gudiwada, Eluru, East Godavari, West Godavari and Krishna districts and aquaculture zones were surveyed. In Jharkhand state, extensive survey were made in Ranchi, Durg, Sahibganj, Chandil and in Chhattisgarh state, Raipur, Durg and Raigarh were surveyed. Information was also collected from State Government Fishery Departments in each state. A total of 265 farms, 36 aqua shops, and 18 drug manufacturer units were surveyed and information collected.

Data collection and analysis

Both primary and secondary data were used during the study. Primary data were collected through field surveys in different districts and aquaculture zones, to have on spot assessment. Specific prescribed questionnaire “Survey on usage pattern of drugs and chemicals in Indian aquaculture under All India Network Project on Fish Health” was used for survey. Data were collected through interview and personal interaction with fish farmers, hatchery operators, aqua-shop owners, fish disease consultants and representative of pharmaceuticals and feed companies. Data on use of chemicals, active ingredients of aqua-medicines, their indications, method of application, dose, effectiveness, duration of application, cost and effect on environment were collected and compiled. Secondary source of information consisted of published reports, training material, newsletters of aquaculture production firms, non-government organizations, appropriate government organizations like Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA), Coastal Aquaculture Authority (CAA) etc. Data was collected through Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and conduct of Fish Health- Awareness Programme and Kissan Gosthi at selected aquaculture zones. The data were further analyzed using tabular and descriptive statistical techniques.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

With the increase in demand of fish production and intensive methods of fish culture, aquatic animals come across a series of health hazards mainly due to deterioration of environmental condition, stress and incursion of infectious agents. At the same time, there has been over-exploitation of fisheries from open water resources that has placed pressure on wild fish populations. The consequences of these impacts have been emergence and spread of an increasing array of fish diseases, having impact on fish production and productivity [11]. This has led the farmers and hatchery owners adopt a variety of measures including application of aqua-medicines, drugs and chemicals in aquaculture system as preventive and control measure to minimize production loss. Preventive measures constitute the core of disease control programme, including environmental manipulation, proper nutrition and immunological protection. Treatment is usually in form of chemotherapy to be considered as last resort in disease control [30]. The aqua-medicine use patterns have been different in different regions depending on culture practices, species used and economics expected. In the present case, a total of 265 fish farms, 36 aqua-shops, and 18 drug manufacturer units were surveyed and information collected on 364 aqua-medicines, drugs and chemicals. It was observed that in active aquaculture zones, various types infectious diseases such as bacterial red disease, gill disease, swollen abdomen, Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome EUS), parasitic diseases like argulosis, gill flukes, and few protozoans like Ichthyophthiriasis, Ich and Myxobollus sp. were found affecting Indian Major Carps (IMCs) viz. rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), and other species like sharputi (Puntius sarana), and silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) as also previously reported by other researchers [6,7,9]. Farmers in the regions use different antibacterial, antiseptics and water sanitizers to control disease and minimize production loss. Again, various pesticides and insecticides were being used to control fish parasitic infestations, which have been a major cause of concern in entire region. Different authors have also reported use of various such drugs, chemicals, feed supplements in aquaculture practices for prevention of disease and enhance production [10,16,19,21] and for health management in hatcheries [15,17,18,23] Apart from antibiotics, some common chemicals reported being used in aquaculture included sodium chloride, formalin, malachite green, methylene blue, potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide and glutaraldehyde [18,22]. Besides disease control, many aquaculture drugs have significant application in pond construction, soil and water management, to improve aquatic productivity, feed formulation, manipulation of reproduction, growth promotion and processing and value addition of the final product [12,14,20,23]. Most of the aqua-products commercially available for use in aquaculture could be categorized in to six types, i) Those chemicals and formulations for water quality management ii) Anti-parasitic drugs and chemicals iii) Disinfectants and sanitizers iv) Probiotics and water remediation products (Feed/soil/water probiotics), v) Feed Supplements including growth promoters and vi) Antibiotics.

In the present survey, it was observed that a wide variety of chemicals and formulations were available in the market, recommended for maintenance of water quality and pond management in aquaculture. The list of such chemicals with their active ingredients have been presented in table 1. Pond preparation is vital to enhance the productivity of the system. Again, maintenance of optimum water quality is very crucial in determining the success and failure of the fish production to a great extent which includes pH, total alkalinity, total hardness, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), ammonia, and nitrite-nitrate concentration. In the survey region, different chemicals like Addoxy, Aqualite, Clinzex-DS, Earth, Halonex, Odoban-A30 etc. were commonly used in pond preparation process and for maintenance of optimum water quality. Whereas Ammocurb, Ammo Trap, Bio Curb, De-Odorase, De-Odr and Toximar were used for removal of ammonia from water and sediment, O2 MAX, Oxycal and Oxy-Gen were used for DO maintenance. The range of such products used in shrimp culture were more than that used in carp culture. It was noted that most of these products were imported in bulk by the local firms from other Asian counties like China, Thailand and Singapore, which were then repacked and marketed as different brands with variable compositions. In aquaculture, maintaining optimum DO concentration (3-6 ppm) in the culture ponds is most important in cloudy weather, post-monsoon and during winter season, as many cases of fish-kills are recorded due to this single factor. Hence fish farmers need to know the required water treatment processes to control temperature, DO, pH, and dissolved nitrogen compound (ammonia, nitrate and nitrite) levels in the culture water for optimal growth of aquatic animals [31].

Trade Names Active Ingredients Dose and Dosage
Addoxy Tetraacetyl ethylene diamine, Sodium perborate, Adsorbants and De-odorizers 500 g/ha
ALTIMATE-ZM AQUA Hydrated sodium calcium alumino silicates, Buffered organic acids, activated charcoal and Dried neem leaf powder 10 k/acre of water spread area
Aqualite Zeolite 25-30 k/acre
Clarity Edetic acid, Hydrated alkaline sulphate, Peroxides, Amitoxins, Alluminium dehydrated silicates 1-2 k/acre
Clinzex-DS Aquaculture grade Zeolite Pond: 50 k/Ha, During culture: 15-20 kg per Ha
Earth Humic acid, Humin cytokynine, Auxine, Fuxine, Fulvic acid 1 l/acre
Enrich Ca, P, Fe, Zn Mg, Cu Co, Cr, Bo, Al as chelating salts 1 pack (2 k)/acre
Halonex 3 methyl,4 Alkyl two chain Brominated halogen Compound-6%w/w, Potentiser, Buffers, Stabilizers, Emulsifiers Prawn and shrimp: 5 l/acreFish: 500 ml-1 l/acre
Jinong Humic Acid Active humic acid, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Molybdenum Manganese, Iron, Zinc, Boron, Copper 1 l/acre
MPC Extra pure MgCl2.6H2O, Potassium chloride and Sodium chloride fused 4-5 k/acre
Nutrisoft EDTA concentrated aluminium dehydrated silicate stabilizers of ammonia, Fe hardness toxin binders and ammonia reducing agents 1 k/acre
Toxi Clean Aqua SiO2-51%, Al2O3-32%, Fe2O3-3%, Na2O-3%, MgO-2% 10-20 k/acre of water
Ammo Curb Extract of the plant Yucca schidigera and fortified with nitrifying bacteria (probiotic) 300-500 g/acre every 10 days when ammonia level increases
Ammo Trap Minimum 10% of glyco components from Yucca schidigera concentrated extract 1 l/Ha every 2 weeks for ammonia removal
Ammo-Nil+ Salts of alkyl sulfonic acids with saponins 500 g/acre
BioCURB®Dry Natural extract of plant Yucca schidigeraAmmonia binding agent and flavouring agent 1 k/Ha, thoroughly mixing with sand and sprinkling water
De-Odorase Ammonia reducer (Yucca schidigera extract) 250-300 ml/Ha
De-odr Yucca schidigera and reducing agents with stabilizers Shrimp ponds: 500 ml/acreFish Ponds: 200 ml/Ha/1m water depth
Gardian Yucca Schidigera plant extracts in suitable stabilizers and potentiators 200-300 ml/Ha in shrimp/Fish farm
Mex Yucca 100% natural pure Yucca schidigera 250-300 ml/acre for 1 m water
Odoban-A30 Yucca schidigera steroidalsaponins, Urease inhibitors with stabilizers and fillers Pond preparation: 500 g/Ha, Food application: 1 g/k
Odocure Spray dried Yucca schidigera extract powder with stabilizer 500 g/acre (3 ft depth, @ 15 days interval)
Sulphanil-H ThiobacillusChlorobium, Disulfovibriodisulphuric acid 1 k/Ha for every month
Toxi-Clean Aqua HSCAS (Zeolite) with YUCCA extract Pond preparation: 50 k/acre For regular use: 10-20 k/acre
ModuloxTMTab Sodium perborate and zeolite (catalyst) to improve oxygen level in aquatic pond • If oxygen level is upto 3 ppm, use 1 k/Ha• If oxygen level is lower than 3 ppm, then use 3-5 k/Ha
O2 Marine Long acting oxygen releasing tablets (Sodium perborate) 1 kg/Ha at low oxygen level
O2 Max Fast acting oxygen releasing tablets for aqua culture ponds Low oxygen level: 1 kg per hectare of pond, O2deficiency: 3-5 k per hectare of pond
Oxycal Calcuim peroxide with stabilizers 2-3 k/acre
Oxy-Gen 100% disposable peroxide of Ca 1 k/Ha
Sodium percarbonate tab Na2Co3.1.5H2O (MW 157.01) 500 g/Ha or 4 oz in a gallon of warm or hot water
Toximar Mixture of natural zeolites for use in aquatic feed For pond preparation: 40-50 k/acre,For culture pond usage: 10-20 k/acre
Table 1: Chemicals and their formulations available for water quality maintenance in aquaculture.
 
Although, there are no published reports available on use of such aqua –drugs, chemicals and formulations in aquaculture in other counties, Ali et al., [12] reported use of Geotox, Zeolite, Zeocare, Lime, MegaZeo, Bio Aqua, Aquanone, Zeo prime for the pond preparation and water quality management by different farmers in Bangladesh. Aquanone were used for controlling unwanted fishes as well as other harmful aquatic animals. Jilani et al., [16] reported that lime, zeolite, fish toxin, insecticides and different fertilizers were used for the preparation and water quality management in Noakhali district. Lime was the most commonly used chemical used in fish culture in Bangladesh [24], as also observed in the present survey. Sharker et al., [24] also noted that most chemicals were used for oxygen supply like Bio-ox, Best oxygen, Oxygen plus, Oxyflow, Oxylife, Oxymax, Oxymore and Oxyplus. Oxydizing agent, hydrogen peroxide was the major active ingredient of such products. Faruk et al., [10,20] observed that oxymax was commonly used to remove hardness and toxic gases in fish culture ponds. 

Among fish diseases, parasitic infestations are major cause of concern in semi-intensive and extensive fish culture system. Ectoparasites are widely distributed infectious agent in freshwater fish which include single celled protozoan and multi-cellular trematodes, crustaceans and arthropods [32]. These parasites induce high morbidity, retard growth and reduce the market value of both food fish and ornamental. Wide ranges of chemicals or formulations are being used by the fish farmers for the treatment of parasitic infestations caused by fish louse (Argulus spp.), gill flukes (Dactylogyrus sp.), Myxobolllus sp., ich (Ichthyophtherius sp.) and gill maggot (Ergasillus sp.). The drugs and chemicals commonly used to control parasitic infestations in fish culture have been presented in table 2. These included Nuvan, Butox Vet, Cliner, Ectodel (2.8%), Emamectin Benzoate (EB), Hitek Powder, Paracure-IV etc. Among these Butox Vet and Cliner has comparatively higher market demand than other products. However, there has been no official recommendation for use of such products in aquaculture, although many such products have been permitted for use in animal medicine and agriculture as insecticides. In European countries, the anti parasitic drugs that are mostly used to control the sea lice contain Dichlorvos, Azamethiphos, Hydrogen peroxide, Ivermectin, Emamectin, Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Teflubenzuron, and Diflubenzuron as the active ingredients [15]. Although a number of products appear to be available to veterinarians and salmon farmers in European countries only a few are prescribed. Only Emamectin Benzoate (EB), has been used as medicated feed in all jurisdictions. In fact, EB is the only product used in Canada (under Emergency Drug Release) and the US (INAD) for control of parasitic infestations in fish [13].

Trade Names Active Ingredients Dose and Dosage
Bancoxy-K Amprolium hydrochloride 20% w/w, Menodione sodium bisulphite (0.2%) 30 g in 25-30 litres of drinking water
Paramed Pentapropyl methyl-thio-benzimidazole carbamate 5% 1-1.2 k/ton feed for 3 Days
Nuvan Dichlorvus tech. 83.0%, Xylene 8.0%, Epichlorohydrin 1.0%, Emulsifier 7.0%, Triethanonline 0.9%, Methylene Blue 0.1% 150 to 250 ml per acre
Decis Deltamethrin 2.8% (W/W), Triglyceride, Stabilizer-Butylated hydroxyl toluene-1% 100 ml/acre
Hilmala Malathion tech. 52.8% w/w, Stabilizer (Epichlorhydrin) -1% w/w, Emulsifier (Alkyl aryle sulphonate and polyoxy ethelene ether-5%, Aromex -41.2% w/w Apply @ 0.05%
Starchlor Dichlorovus-76% E.C. 150-400 ml/acre of crop field
Nivaard Azadiractin 0.15%, (1500 PPM) Min 1 l/acre
ButoxVet (Deltamethrin 1.25%) 20-30 ml/acre
Clinar Cypermethrin 20-30 ml/acre meter of water
Ecto Del 2.8% Deltamethrin E.C 2.8% 50-100 ml/acre pond 5 feet depth
Hitek powder Ivermectin IP 1% w/w Mix 200-250 of Powder with 1 ton of feed before feeding
Copper (II) Sulfate pentahydrate pure Copper sulphate 1:2000 with water/acre
BROFINTM 5% Bromine 5% w/v 5 l/Ha
Paracure – I.V Ivermectin: 2% w/w 250 gm per ton of feed for 4 days
Dichlorvos-E.C. 76% Dichlorvos-76% 150-250 ml/acre
Blue Caloxy Calcium peroxide 75% 1 kg per ton of feed or 1-2 kg/0.1 Ha
Table 2: Antiparasitic drugs, chemicals and formulations commonly used in aquaculture.

A wide range of chemicals are available for use in aquaculture as disinfectant and as a measure of better health management. The comprehensive range of antimicrobial disinfectants or sanitizers with their active ingredients, commonly marketed for fish health management have been presented in table 3. Some of the commonly used chemical preparations were Virgo, Germicida, Ecodyne, Viranil, Mizuphor, Bionex-80, Sokrena-WS, methylene blue, formalin, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, copper sulphate, malachite green etc. Besides these, Bleaching powder, Aquakleen, Bkc Plus (Benzalkonium chloride), Novir, Polydard+, Formalin, etc. were by fish farmers for disease treatment. Formalin is also used to control protozoan parasite infestation and BKC is used for controlling bacterial disease (Table 3). Formalin, has been approved by the US FDA for use in aquaculture. However, when applied to ponds, it can kill phytoplankton and cause oxygen depletion. Formalin apparently reacts with ammonia to form hexamethylene-triamine and possibly formamide, a toxic substance to aquatic ecosystem [33]. Other researchers have also reported use of such chemicals in pond culture and in hatchery operations [14,18]. Sharker et al., [24] reported use of Efinol for stress management and a variety of disinfectants in different aquaculture operations in Bangladesh. These were mostly used in hatchery, grow-out systems and cleaning of for equipment and materials to maintain hygiene and to control pathogen load [12], as also observed in the present survey.

Trade Names Active Ingredients Dose and Dosage  
Virgo Potassium monopersulphate 50% w/w containing triple salt of hydrogen sulphate and potassium sulphate 0.5-1 kg/acre during pond preparationHatcheries: 5-10 ppm for disinfection  
 
Germicida Powder of sodium chloride and salt containing potassium Monopersulphate, potassium hydrogen sulphate Preparation stage: 1 kg/acreGrow out stage: 0.5 kg/acre  
 
 
Ecodyne Polyvinyl pyrolidone iodine complex with 20% activity, Stabilizers, Emusifiers 250-350 ml/acre foot of pond water  
Viranil Potassium monopersulfate, Potassium sulphate, Potassium hydrogen sulphate, Color : Tartrazine 5-10 g/ton of water in hatchery1-2 k/acre of pond  
 
Citromax Natural organic compounds, Lactic ferments, Traces of Ascorbic acid, Palmitic acid, Mannose, Glucose, Glycerides, Fatty acids, Amino acids, Citris bioflavonoides, Tocopherols and Carrier 0.5 g/kg of feed on daily basis for normal application. In case of bacterial or fungal infection-1 g/kg of feed for 5 days  
Wgd Care Extract of B. subtills, L. planatarum,Streptomyces rimosus, 1-Cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7, (1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid, Chemical adjuvants, Herbal Synergisers, Mineral components In Feed:Preventive: 2 ml/10 kg once in 15 daysCurative: 1 ml/kg one day In pond waterPreventive: 100 ml/acre once in 15 daysCurative: 400 ml/acre one day  
Mizuphor Alkyl aryl polyoxyethylene iodine complex which provides essential plus 10% iodine along with buffering and emulsifying agent Shrimp/prawn pond: 2-3 l/Ha (1m water depth)  
Bionex-80 Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride: 80% Shrimp pond: (5 gm size: 1-2 l/acreFish pond: 1-2 l/acre  
 
Bactovirnil • Potassium monopersulphate• Sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate• Malic acid 2 kg/Ha during culture period, twice in a month Hatchery: 5 ppm for reservoir water in Tanks: 1 ppm, repeat every 4 days  
 
 
Sokrena-Ws Didecyledimethyle ammonium chloride 5-10 l/Ha pond at 1 mt depth or @ 0.5-1 ppm (i.e., 0.5-1 ml in 1000 l)  
Potassium permanganate Potassium permanganate 20 g/10 l water and spray or dip treat  
Benzalkonium chloride (50%) Benzalkonium chloride-50% 0.5 ppm  
Blesson Benzalkonium chloride Ponds: 2-4 l/ha, 1 m water depth)  
Broot 5X (Bromine) Tetradecyletrimethyle ammonium bromide, Alkylbenzyledimethyle ammonium chloride, Nonyle phenol ethoxylate 1 l/acre (For juveniles till 8-10 g size) 2 l/acre (above 10 gm size)  
Malachite green (M.S) Malachite Green Dip: 66.7-100 mg/l, Bath: 6.7 mg/l  
 
 
Protect Alkyl dimethyl benzal ammonium chloride 50% w/v 500 ml/acre foot of water  
Steridol p.f. Nonyle alkyl phenoxy choline, Ethelene oxide iodine complex (providing 2% I2) Hatcheries: 20 ml/l water (2%) Prawn tank: 500 ml/acreFish tank: 1 l/acre  
 
 
Formaldehyde solution-37-41% w/v A colourless aqueous solution of formaldehyde in deionized water stabilized with 15% methyl alcohol For prolonged bath: 15-25 mg/lFor short term bath: 250 mg/l or 1 ml/gallon of water  
Biolin plus Each 100 gm contains: Formaldehyde solution I.P-7.5 mlStrong glutaraldehyde solution B.P-7.5 mlBenzalkonium chloride solution I.P-5.0 ml 5 l/Ha in 1 metre water depth  
 
 
Bkc plus Dimethyl Benzyle ammonium chloride-50% 1 l/acre  
Novir Triple salt containing: Potassium- peroxomonosulphate, Sodiumdodecyle-benzenesulphate, Sulphamic acid 500-750 g/acre once in 15 days  
Polgard+ 3 methyl, 4 alkyl 2 chain brominated halogen compound, Buffers and Stabilisers and Emulsifier 1 l/acre feet level of pond water  
Glyphogan Glyphosate 41% SL 2-3 l/Ha  
 T
Table 3: Available antimicrobial or disinfectants used in aquaculture practices.

Furthermore, it was observed that farmers frequently use various combinations of microbial preparations as feed-probiotics and water remediation, for regular maintenance of fish health and pond environment (Table 4). Some of the probiotics used in feed included Y-Max, Novib, Lactoplus, Biovet-Yc, Yea Sacc, Gold Yeast and Saccharolact and some water probiotics included Bio-Trim, Thiomax, Optibact, B4, Terragard-SP, Uni-Proclean, EcoTech, Optima, Eco Taxnil, Sludg Nil, Bioclear etc. Probiotics are the preparations of microbial organisms and yeasts having beneficial effects in nutrient utilization, promoting digestion, growth and enhancement of immune response in the host body [34]. Gram positive spore forming Bacillus spp. is the major constituents in most of the commonly used probiotics in fish farming [35]. Some research trials have indicated immuno-stimulatory effect of probiotics in several species of freshwater fish [8,36]. Use of probiotics as eco-friendly substitute to antibiotics and other drugs, have found common application in disease management in aquaculture. Probiotic formulations contained wide range of beneficial bacterial strains including Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Nitrosomonas sp. Aspergillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Clostridium sp., Rhodococcus sp., Rhodobacter sp., and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although a wide range of products containing different combinations of above probiotic organisms in different combinations were marketed in high demand, the authenticity and quality of such products could not be verified. A significant observation made was that the use of such probiotic products have significantly increased in last few years, mostly in shrimp culture practices and their application in grow-out carp culture is also increasing. Many such products were manufactured locally, packed and sold with attractive packages, most of the products did not mention the types and quantity of organisms contained in such products. However, such products were in high demand in all aquaculture zones, indicating their effectiveness, although the utility of such products have not been scientifically proved. 

Trade Names Active Ingredients Dose and Dosage
Y-Max Saccharomyces cerevisiae,Saccharomyces boulardil 5 g/k feed
Novib Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-3.5 × 106B cereus-12.5 × 106Excipients: q.s 2-3 k/Ha based on the degree of vibrio infection or 10 g/kg feed if given through feed
Lacto plus Each kg Contains: Lactobacillus (60,000 million CFU Yeast culture, Betaine amylases, Proteases, Lipases B-Complex and Minerals Shrimp: 5-8 g/k feedFish: 3-5 g/k feed
Biovet-Yc Saccharomyces Bolardii-30,000 millionLactobacillus acidophilus-45000 millionSaccharomyces ceraevisiae-300000 million CFU, Alpha amylase-5 g, Sea weed powder-100 g 1.5 k/ton feed
Yea Sacc Live yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain)- 10% 100 g/ton feed
Saccharolact Lactobacillus acidophilusL. caseiL. buulgaricus, Streptococcus lactisBacillus subtillis, Saccharomyces cereviseae varieties-1012 CFU/g 50 g/m feed mass/as directed by the nutritionist
Bio-Trim Bacillus sp-10CFU/g 2-3 k/Ha
Actisaf sc 47 Saccharomyces cerevisiae 3 g to 10 g/animal/day
Gold Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 500 g/ton of feed in all complete rations
Thiomax Bacillus subtillis, B. lichenformis, B. polymyxa, B. megaterium, B. pumilusB. spec (TF2), Nitrosomonas, Nitrobactor, Thiobacillus spp. and micronutrients Prawn and Shrimp: 2-3 k/acre
Optibact Bacillus sutilis, circulans,, megatherium, polymixa-4.5 × 1010 CFU/g, Thiobacilus, thiooxidansDenitrifians-4 × 1010 CFU/g, Nitrosomans and Nitrobactor-4 × 1010CFU/g, Rhodococcus and Rhodobacter-4.5 × 1010 CFU/g 300-400 g/acre
B4 Bacillus species (>5 × 1010 CFU/g) working in all kinds of aquaculture systems in all salinities and temperatures Pond water: 200 g/acre/weekFeeding: 2 g/k feed
Pond Dtox H2S Oxidising bacteria (Paracoccus pantotrophus)-3.1 × 10CFU/g Culture: 1 k/10000 m2If water becomes Black with bad odour: 1stApplication- 2 k/10000 m2and 2nd application after 3-4 days-(1 k/10000m2)
Terra Gard-SP Soil probiocs in Thiobacillus and Bacillus species in the natural carrier with adjuvants 1-2 k/acre
Uni-Proclean Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. megatherium, B. Polymixa, B. firmis, B. mesentricus, Cellulomonascartae, Pediococcus , Aspergillusoryzae, Perococcusdenitrifican 500 g/HaNLT 20 billion CFU/g
Super Biotic Bacillus spp. 10CFU/g 3-5 k/Ha/week
Clean Bot Aspergillus awamori, Daedaleaflavidaa, Trichoderma reesei, Cellulomonas spp,Pseudomonas spp 500 g/acre every 15 days
Eco Tech Bacillus subtillis- 5 × 1010 CFU/g, B. licheniforms-3 × 1010 CFU/g, B. meghatherium-6 × 1010 CFU/g,B. Thiobacillusthioxidin-10CFU/g, B. NitrobactorNitrosomonas-10CFU/gRhodococus-1 × 1011 CFU/g 200-250 g/acre
Optima Contains high density CFU of Bacillus subtillsBacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus polyxa ,Bacillus pumilus, Lactobacillus sporogenies, and denitrifying bacteria 1 k/Ha
PH Fixer Bacillus species 108 CFU/g, Microbial media and buffer mixes 4 k/Ha thrice
Eco Toxnil Bacillus sp. (5 × 10CFU/g)-5.0 gBacillus thermodenitrificans (5 × 10CFU/g)-9.0 g 400 g/acre
Sludg Nil Strains of Rhodococcus sp., Rhodobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Cellulomona sp., Aspergillus sp., and Pseudomonas sp Culture ponds:12-24 cakes/acre
Bio Clear Zeolite containing Bacillus sp., Nitrobacter sp., Cellulomonas sp. and Acetobacter Pond: 5 k/acre, once every fortnight
Biofloc High density water and soil probiotic specially designed for aquaculture (12 billion CFU/g) Fish ponds: 100-200 g/acreHatchery: 30-50 g/10 ton of water
Toxoff Combination of stabilized and lyophilized probiotics like B. subtilis, Lactobacillus lacyis and Thiobacillus versutus 1 k/Ha
Nitrocare-Lq Yucca schidigera, Aloevera, Bacillus subtillus, Bacillus polymyxinBacillus linchcniformisNitrosomonasNitrobacterPseudomonas 1 k per hectare-Mix with pond water and apply uniformly
Pond Fresh Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. Pumilus, Lactobacillus lactis and Rhodobacter 3-5 k/acre or as directed by Aqua culturist
Bio Balance=C:N Bacillus subtillis, Lactobacilus pentoues, Arthrobactor, Rhodococcus, Nitrosomonas Nitrobactor, Thiobacillus, Bacillus liquifaecious 2 l/acre
Cura Mid Nitrosomonas sp, Nitrobacter sp, Bacillus sp, Aerobacter sp, Cellulomonas sp. Fortified with bio-active compounds 12-24 cakes/acre based on Days of Culture (DOC) or as advised by aquaculture consultant
Thiopro-Ds Most potent soil probiotic containingThree species of Thiobacillus spNitrosomonas, Nitrobactor 250 g/acre
Table 4: Probiotics (Feed/soil/water) commonly used in aquaculture practices.

In aquaculture, feed is one of the important component and constitutes approximately 50-60% of total cost of aquaculture production. Accordingly, farmers use a range of feed supplements along with farm made or floating feed for wellbeing of farmed animals. Growth promoters are the compounds chemical or biological substances supplemented in fish feed for fattening, effective utilization of feed, providing better immunity, regulating the intestinal micro flora and increasing the vitality of fish [37]. Several such substances/products were found in use to enhance the growth rate of fish in India. Among these different feed supplements containing essential micro and macro minerals, vitamins, proteins or amino acids were frequently used as growth promoters. There are 10 essential amino acids in fish species viz. arginine, methionine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine. Among these, the limiting amino acids are mainly lysine and methionine which should either be supplemented through the feed or provided from the aquaculture environment [38]. A wide range of feed supplements which are commonly used by fish farmers and hatchery operators in India, included Frankzole, Liv52 Protec, MV24, Star Shrimp, Kalvimin Gold, K-Max, Survivor, Calmag, EnvoMin, Agrimin, Super food etc., (Table 5). Whereas most of the products are imported and locally mixed, there are number of feed-mills located in Andhra Pradesh, which manufacture feed for fish and shrimp culture. Use of farm made feed is also gaining importance. A significant observation in the survey was many farmers especially in commercial grow-out cultures, were not using commercial-grade feed but purely relying on locally available rice bran or Deoiled Rice Bran (DORB) mixed with limited quantity of oil cakes (5-10%) with or without vitamin and mineral mixtures. Sharker et al., [24] reported use of different growth promoter in Bangladesh aquaculture, to enhance fish production which included Megavit Aqua, Aqua Boost, Aqua Savor, Vitamin premix, Fibosoel, Grow fast, Orgavit auqa, AQ-Cell, AQ Grow-G, Fish vita plus, AQ Grow-L, Nature Aqua GP, Vitamix, F Aqua, AC mix and many more [20].

Trade Names Active Ingredients Dose and Dosage
Frankzole Vitamin-A, D3, E, K3, C, B1, B2, B4, B12, Folic acid Biotin, DL-methionine, L-Lysine, Inositol, Zn, Co, Se, SiO2 1 k/acre
Liv-52 Protec Each 10 ml contains: extracts ofSarapunka-47.5 mg, Bhumyamalaki-43.75 mg, Arjuna-33.75 mg, Yavatikta-31.25 mg, Kakamachi-25 mg, Nimba-25 mg, Punarnava-25 mg, Bhringaraja-18.75 mg Fish/Shrimp- 20 ml/k feed (up to 10 week age)50 ml/k feed (above 11week age)
MV24 Highly Bio available Vitamins (A, D3, E, K3, C, B1, B2, B5, B6, B7, B8, B9, B12 & Choline), Minerals (Calcium, Phosphorus, Cobalt, Copper, Manganese, Zinc, Potassium, Iodine), Amino acids (DL-Methionine and L-Lysine) Fish-2 to 3 g per kg of feedPrawn-2 to 5 g per kg of feed
Lipidex Lipids and Amino acids, Vitamin A, C, E, B12, Liver oil 20 ml/k of feed
Intramin-Ol Nitrogen: 3.000 mg/ml; Phosphorus: 2.05 mg/mlCalcium: 30 mg/ml, Zn: 210 mg/ml, Fe: 110 mg/ml, Mg: 1100 mg/ml, Cu: 98-120 mg/mlAqueous media: Q.S. 5-10 ml/k of feed
Star Shrimp Growth promoter of organic chelated essential macro and trace minerals in organic form (Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, Mg, S, Zn, Fe, Co, Cu, Mn) Shrimp: 10 g per 1 k feed1-2 days before and after moultingFish: 500 g - 2 k/ton feed
Venribee-Plus Vit B-Complex with Vit-E 20-2 g/100 k fed
Kalvimin Gold Each kg containsCa-260 g, P-130 g, Mg-6 g, Mn-1.5 g, Fe-1.5 g, I2-325 g, Cu-4.2 g, Cn-9.6 g, Co-150 mg, S-7.2 g, K=100 mg, Na-5.9 mg, Se-10 mg, Vit-A=700000 IU, Vit-D3=70000 IU, Vit-E=250 mg, Nicotinamide-1g, Biotin-550 mcg, Lactobacillus sporogenies=15 × 1010 CFU 1 k per 100 k of feed
Grovit-C Each gram contains vitamin-C 500 mg stabilizers, anti oxidants and proper base 1 to 1.5 g/kg feed
Survivor Mixture of short and medium chain monoglycerides and organic acids : Monocaprin, Monocaprilin, Monolaurin, Monobutyrin 7-8 ml/k feed in minimum of 2 meals/day
Antacid Organic acids, Antioxidants, Organic selenium, Mannan, Oligosaccharides with Alium sativum 5-10 g/k feed
K-Max Enriched Potassium, Chloride and other nutrients During culture-10 to 20 k/ha/week
Novumin Mineral concentration in 1 kgOrganic Zn 40 g (4 %), Organic Cu 20 g (2 %), Organic Mn 40 g (4%), Organic Se 0.3 g (.03%), Guaranteed methionine activity-54 g (54 %) Farm: 5-10 g/k of feed,Hatcheries: 1-2 g/k of fed
Calmag Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42− and other minerals 40 to 60 k/Ha/week
Envo Min Complex mixture of essential micronutrients in inert from with Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Sodium and Potassium. Enrich with Ammonia Acids and high quality growth promoters. Culture: 10 -15 g/k of feedFor pond preparation: 25 k/acre
Growel Vitamins like A, E, D3, B1, B2, B6, B12, Niacin, Pantothenic acid, Folic Acid, Vitamin-C etc. Shrimp- 5 to 8 g/k of feed regularly
Aqua Vit-C Bio available coated vitamin-C Shrimp: 1.0 g/k feed
Hydrovit C2 Each gram contains: Vitamin-C-350 mg, Hepato pancreatic stimulants-100 mg, Growth promoting factors-250 mg Shrimp: 10 g/k feedFish: 5 g/k feed
Agrmin Forte Vit-A=7 lakh IU, D3=70000 IU, E=250 mg, Nicotinamide-1 mg, Co-150 mg, Cu-1200 mg, I2-325 mg, Fe-1500 mg, Mg-6000 mg, Mn-1500 mg 1 k-2 kg to be mixed in 1000 k feed
Agrimin Co-150 mg, Cu-1200 mg, I2-325 mg, Fe-5000 mg, Mg-6000 mg, Mn-1500 mg, K-100 mg, Na-5.9 mg, S-0.922%, Zn-9600 mg, DL-Methionine-1920 mg 1-2 k mixed in 100 k feed
Him-C Methyl paraben sodium, Propyl paraben sodium For Fish/Prawn: 5-10 g/k of Feed
Kalvimin Forte Vit A, D2, D3, E, B12, Ca, Cal-pantothenate and Ca, P, Mn, I2, Fe, Zn, Cu and antioxidants 2.5 k/ton of feed
Super Food Zinc, Magnesium, Boron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Calcium, Potassium etc. 1 l/acre water depth 4ft
Jinong Sea Weed Seaweed oligosaccharide, Mannitol, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potash, Alginate acid, Amino acid and Minerals 1.5 kg-2.5 kg per acre of pond water
Osmin Ca=30%, P=9%, Mg=0.12%, Fe-0.6%, I2=0.1%, Cu=0.02%, Cloride=0.05%, Zn=0.2%, Lysine=0.2%, D-methionine=1.92%, Thiamine=50 mg, Riboflavin=66 mg, Niacin=330 mg, Vit B6=26.67 mg, Folic acid=2000 mcg, Vit B12=10 mcg, Biotin=500 mcg, Pantothenic acid=20 mg, Chitosan=12 g 5-10 g/k of feed
Table 5: Dynamic and static light scattering data for PIC micelles in 0.1 M NaCl.
Feed supplements or growth promoter used in aquaculture practices.

Antibiotics with different trade names were seen in the market and used by the farmers in disease management as preventive and control methods, the list of which has been shown in table 6. These included Oxymycin, Enrox, Hydrodox, Lixen Oxytetracycline, Hostacyline Vet, Cifintas AQ etc. These antibiotics were used for treating the bacterial red disease or ulcer disease, bacterial hemorrhagic septicaemia and also useful in control of Aeromoniasis, Pseudomonas wound infections and control of enteric septicemia of catfish caused by Edwardsiella ictaluristrains. It has been shown that antibacterial are the main course in juvenile or larval stages of aquatic animal production as prophylactic agents [25,29,39]. Among antibiotics, oxytetracycline has been the most widely used antibiotics in aquaculture practices [19,40]. Chowdhury et al., [14] reported that the antibiotics like Renamycin (Oxytetracycline) had significantly controlled the bacterial infection when used at a dose rate of 50 mg/kg body wt/day for 3-5 days with 80-90% efficacy. Rao et al., [41] indicated Oxytetracycline, Sulfadiazine and Trimethoprim combination was the most popular chemotherapeutants in freshwater aquaculture and hatchery systems in India, although their present use has been limited because of lowered efficacy. At therapeutic levels antibiotics are often administered for short periods in feed to groups of fish that share common tanks or cages.

Trade Names Active Ingredients Dose and Dosage
Oxymycin Oxytetracycline HCL IP Fish - 100 g/200 k of feed for 5-7 days,Prawns - 2-4 g/k feed for 5-7 days
Enrox Fluoroqunolone Prevention : 5 g/k feed for 7 days, Disease-10 g/k feed continuously for 3 days
Lixen Powder Each g contains Anhydrous Cephalexin: 75 mg 35-50 mg per k Biomass
Hydrodox Doxycycline: 100 mg, Ascorbic acid: 80 mg 100 g/ton biomass
Oxytetracycline soluble powder I.P (Vet.) Each 4 g contains: OTC-200 mg 3.5-7 g/100 Pound biomass
Cefintas Aq Cephalexin - 7.5 % w/w 7.5-10 mg/k body weight orally
Table 6: Antibiotics commonly used in aquaculture practices.

Besides food-fish production, aqua-drugs, chemicals and antibiotics have got large scale application in ornamental fisheries. In recent years, the increased development of ornamental fish culture in many states, has opened up problems of disease and water quality deteriorations in ornamental fishes. Ornamental fishery is becoming a billion dollar industry in India having great export potential. Disease causing factors in aquarium or ornamental-fish ponds are mostly due to poor food, rapid fluctuation in water temperature, lack of oxygen or some other adverse conditions [30]. The details of anti-parasitic, anti-fungal and antibiotics etc., used in ornamental fisheries have been presented table 7 and 8. Most of ornamental fish varieties are normally procured from neighbouring Asian counties to India mainly through legal and illegal means. Ornamental fisheries have been the source of exotic bacterial and viral pathogens that has mandated strict quarantine regulations. Occurrence of viral diseases like Cyprinid Herpesvius-2 (CyHV-2), Koi Rana Virus (KIRV), Carp Edema Virus (CEV), Megalocytiviris and Goldfish haematopoietic virus necrosis herpes have recently been reported in ornamental fish culture [42]. In addition, koi sleepy disease caused by CEV was reported in Cyprinus carpio [43]. Because of the fact that there are no strict guidelines in ornamental fisheries, a wide range of chemicals, antimicrobial agents, insecticides and antibiotics, are being used by farmers and ornamental fish operators to control disease problems.

Agent Dosage and Route Parasites/Pathogens
A. Anti-parasitic agents
Acetic acid, Glacial 2 ml/l × 30-40 s bath Trematode, Crustacean ectoparasites
Chloramine-T Prolonged bath 10-15 mg/l, repeat after 48 h Protozoal and some Monogenean infections
Copper sulphate 100 mg/l for 1-5 min bath. Maintain free copper iron levels at 0.15-0.2 mg/l as permanent bath Marine fish ectoparasites
Diflubenzuron (Dimilin â) 0.01 mg/l permanent bath for 6 days × 3 treatments Crustacean ectoparasites
Fenbendazole 2 mg/l permanent bath 7 days × 3 treatments,50 mg/k orally, in feed Non-encysted intestinal nematodes
Formalin (37% Formaldehyde) 0.125-0.25 ml/l up to 60 min bath 0.015-0.025 ml/ permanent bath × 2-3 days Ectoparasites
Ivermectin 0.1-0.2 mg/k i.m. Lernaea
Leteux- Meyer Mixture Stock solution (Malachite green 3.3 g/l Formalin) Use 0.015 ml/l bath × 3treatments Protozoal ectoparasites
Levamisole 1-2 mg/l × 24 h bath Internal nematodes
Malachite green 50-60 mg/l × 10-30 s bath;0.1 mg/l permanent bath for 3days100 mg/l topical to skin lesions Protozoal infection in fresh water fish
Mebendazole 1 mg/l × 24 h bath Monogenean trematodes
Mebendazole + Closantel (Use Mebendazole 75 mg/l + Closantel 50 mg/l e.g., Supavermâ) 1ml/400 l × 1 Monogenean trematodes
Metronidazole 25 mg/l permanent bath for 48 h × 3 treatments100 mg/k in feed × 3 days Internal flagellates (e.g., Hexamita Spironucleus)
Piperazine 10 mg/k in feed × 3days Non-encysted intestinal nematodes
Potassium permanganate 100 mg/l × 5-10 min bath2 mg/l permanent bath Fresh water protozoal and Crustacean ectoparasites
Praziquantel 2-10 mg/l up to 4 h bath × 3 treatments;5-12 g/k feed for 5days Monogenean trematodes ectoparasites, Cestodes
Salt (Sodium chloride) 1-5 g/l permanent bath30-35 g/l × 4-5 min bath Fresh water protozoal ectoparasites
Toltrazuril 30 mg/l × 60 min × 3 treatment Myxozoans
Trichlorphon 0.5 mg/l permanent bath or 0.5-1.0 mg/l permanent bath × 10 days Crustacean ectoparasites
B. Antifungal agents:
Formalin (37% Formaldehyde) 1-2 ml/l bath, up to 15 min0.23 ml/l bath, up to 60 min Mycotic infections on eggs (do not treat within 24 h of hatching
Itraconazole 1-10 mg/k daily in feed for 1-7 days Systemic mycoses
Malachite green 1-2 mg/l × 30-60 min bath0.1 mg/l permanent bath, 1% topical to skin lesions Mycotic infections in fresh water fish
Table 7: Anti-parasitic and anti-fungal agents used in ornamental fish diseases.
 
Agent Dosage and route Indications
Acriflavine 500 mg/l × 30 min bath5-10 mg/l prolonged bath Skin bacterial infections
Amoxycillin 40-80 mg/k in feed for 10 days  
Chloramine -T 15.0-20 mg/l for prolonged bath, repeat after 48 h if necessary Treatment of bacterial gill disease, fin rot
Enrofloxacin 2.5-5.0 mg/l × 5 h bath5-10 mg/k orally for 10-15 days Skin bacterial infections, Red disease, Ulcers
Erythromycin 100 mg/k orally, in feed × 10day Generalized bacterial infection
Kanamycin 50-100 mg/l × 5 h bath50 mg/k in feed for 14 days Generalized bacterial infection
Methylene blue 2 mg/l prolonged bath Treatment of bacterial gill disease, Fin rot
Nifurpiriniol(Furanaceâ) 1-2 mg/l × 30 min to 6 h bath0.1 mg/l prolonged bath4-10 mg/k in feed for 5 days Generalized bacterial infection
Nitrofurazone 100 mg/l × 30 min bath2-5 mg/l prolonged bath for 5-10 days Generalized bacterial infection
Oxytetracycline 10-100 mg/l × 1 h bath55-83 mg/l in feed × 10 days Generalized infections
Potassium permanganate 5 mg/l × 30-60 min bath2 mg/l permanent bath Broad spectrum anti-septic
Povidone-iodine Topical application to wounds Broad spectrum activity
Sulphadimethoxine and Ormetoprim(Rometâ) 50 mg/k in feed × 5 days Broad spectrum activity
Sulphadizine and Trimethoprim(Aquatrim) 20 mg/l × 5-12 h bath30 mg/k in feed × 7-10 days Broad spectrum activity
Sulphadoxine and Trimethoprim 75 mg/k i.m × 8-12 days Broad spectrum activity
Table 8: Antibacterial agents used in ornamental fish disease.

In the present study, data on 364 aqua-drugs and chemicals were collected, out of which 216 products in Andhra Pradesh, followed by 98 products in Odisha, 28 products in Jharkhand and 22 products in Chhattisgarh. Out of these maximum number (31%) of aqua-medicines, drugs and chemicals used belonged to feed supplements and growth promoters group, followed by probiotics (24%), water quality improvement products (18%), antiseptics and sanitizers (13%), anti-parasitic drugs (10%) and least numbers were antibiotics (4%) (Figure 1). This is in contrast to aqua-drug use pattern during 1994-1998, when antimicrobials (antiseptics, sanitizers and antibiotics) constituted more than 50% of total products (based on our previous survey, unpublished data), which were mainly used in newly developing shrimp aquaculture in coastal Indian States [44]. Decline in tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon culture led to development of improved methods of carp culture, thus leading to enhanced application drugs and chemicals in carp culture. Furthermore, variation in usage pattern of aqua-medicines, drugs and chemicals were observed in different states like in Andhra Pradesh (Figure 2), Chhattisgarh (Figure 3), Jharkhand (Figure 4) and in Odisha (Figure 5), which was dependant on culture practices revalent in respective regions. A significant observation, was that probiotics constituted maximum (31%) products in Andhra Pradesh followed by 28% feed supplements and only 2% of products belonged to antibiotics category (Figure 2). This indicated that fish farmers in Andhra Pradesh, being considered innovative and economically advanced, were relying more on probiotic products than on antibiotics, specifically in shrimp (Penaeus vennamei) culture. Again, marketing and use of antibiotics could not be observed in Chhattisgarh, although use of antiseptics/ sanitizers and probiotics were noted (Figure 3). Maximum aqua-products (50%) belonged to feed supplement category (Figure 3). The usage pattern was almost similar both in Jharkhand and Odisha, although more number of antiseptics and sanitizers were used in Jharkhand, may be due to their application in cage culture (Figure 4). In Odisha, the usage pattern of aqua-medicines, drugs and chemicals has shown increasing trend in last few years (Figure 5), mainly due to rapid development of carp and shrimp culture in the state.

Figure 1: Drugs, chemicals or formulations used by farmers in Indian aquaculture.
 
Figure 2: Drugs, chemicals or formulations used by farmers in selected districts of Andhra Pradesh.
 
Figure 3: Drugs, chemicals or formulations used by farmers in selected districts of Chhattisgarh.
 
Figure 4: Drugs, chemicals or formulations used by farmers in selected districts of Jharkhand.

Figure 5: Drugs, chemicals or formulations used by farmers in selected districts of Odisha.</div

CONCLUSION

Aquaculture has become the fastest growing sector of food production in the world. Aquaculture drugs are significant components in health management of aquatic animals, pond construction, soil and water management improve aquatic productivity, feed formulation, manipulation of reproduction, growth promotion and processing and value addition of the final product. Use of chemicals can be of great value for disease management in aquaculture, when are used properly but indiscriminate use or abuse of these can lead to significant dame to human health and environment. The present study described the existing status of aquaculture drugs used in fish and shrimp health management by the fish and shrimp farmers. Except in some parts, most of the farmers involved in aquaculture are mostly small and marginal farmers. Chemical needs are found to be minimal in moderately extensive and semi-intensive culture methods, those employing in IMCs or Tilapia or Pangus culture. This often being limited to addition of some pond fertilizers, soil or water conditioners and in some cases use of anti-parasitic preparations. Survey also revealed that most farmers did not have proper knowledge about the chemicals and they use such aqua drugs as per the advice of fish-consultants or feed/chemical suppliers in the region. Indiscriminate use of such antibiotics and chemicals may lead to development and spread of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and resistance genes and occurrence of antimicrobial residues. All that may induce a negative impact on human, fish and the environment. Hence, there is an urgent need that the policy makers, researchers and scientists should work together in addressing the issues of drugs-use in aquaculture with the view to decrease the negative impacts. Therefore, both the government and nongovernment organizations should take initiative for implementation of better management practices and abide by aquaculture policy guidelines.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

All the authors are grateful to State Fisheries Department of Goverment of Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh, for their cooperation and help during survey work. Thanks are due to all dealers, retailers and distributors of aqua drugs and chemicals for providing information. Authors are also thankful to Indian Council of Agricultural Research, for financial support in form of “ICAR- All India Network Project on Fish Health” and Director ICAR-CIFA for necessary support to carry out present survey work.

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Citation: Mishra SS, Das R, Das BK, Choudhary P, Rathod R, et al. (2017) Status of Aqua-medicines, Drugs and Chemicals Use in India: A Survey Report. J Aquac Fisheries 1: 004.

Copyright: © 2017  Mishra SS, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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