Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Category: Medical Type: Research Article
Current Advances in Pathogenesis in Obesity: Impact of Hypothalamic Glioses
- Kulvinder Kochar Kaur1*, Gautam Allahbadia2, Mandeep Singh3
- 1 Kulvinder Kaur Centre For Human Reproduction, Panjab University, Panjab, India
- 2 Rotunda The Center For Human Reproduction, IVF Hospital, Mumbai, India
- 3 Swami Satyanand Hospital, Punjab, India
*Corresponding Author:Kulvinder Kochar Kaur
Kulvinder Kaur Centre For Human Reproduction, Panjab University, Panjab, India
Tel:+ 91 9501358180,
Fax:91 181 4613422
Received Date: Jun 26, 2017 Accepted Date: Jan 10, 2018 Published Date: Jan 26, 2018
AgRP: Agouti Related Peptide
WAT: White Adipose Tissue
HFD: High Fat Diet
CCL2: C-C motif chemokine Ligand 2
TLR: Toll Like Receptor
IR: Insulin Resistance
MyD88: Myeloid Differentiation primary response 88
DIO: Diet-Induced Obesity
GF: Germ Free
JNK: c-Jun N-terminal Kinase
NFKB: Nuclear Factor Kappa B
SOCS3: Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3
PTB1B: Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B
EPA: Eicosapentaenoic Acid
DHA: Docosahexaenoic Acid
ER: Endoplasmic Reticulum
GPR120: G-Protein coupled Receptor 120
HI: Hypothalamic Inflammation
HIGH FAT DIET (HFD) AND WHITE ADIPOSE TISSUE (WAT) INFLAMMATION
Role of HFD in Obesity
Role of gut microbiota
They further showed that type of dietary fat is a major driver, which influences both composition and diversity of gut microbiota. In mice fed fish oil Lactobacillus is known as a probiotic which has been linked to reduced inflammation and mucosal lesions scores in various models of inflammatory bowel disease and Akkermenia mucinphilia which has been shown to reduce fat mass gain and WAT macrophage infiltration and improve gut barrier function and glucose metabolism when administered in mice with Diet Induced Obesity (DIO) [19,20]. In contrast mice fed lard had increased levels of Bilophila. Earlier studies have shown that Bilophila increases in mice and humans after consumption of diets rich in saturated fats of animal origin and bilophila wadsworthia has been shown to exacerbate colitis in genetically susceptible models [21,22]. Hence to see if microbiota of fish oil fed mice could give protection against lard DIO and inflammation they transported microbiota from lard or fish oil fed mice into antibiotic treated mice that were then fed a lard diet for 3 weeks. Here Caesar et al., utilized antibiotic treated mice in contrast to Germ Free (GF) mice as it is known that GF mice have an underdeveloped immune system, which could potentially confound this analysis . Mice receiving microbiota from lard fed donor showed increased adiposity and inflammation together with a significant increase in Lactobacillus as compared to mice that received microbiota from fish oil fed donor. Thus these data supported Lactobacillus in decreasing inflammation. But they found that the enrichment of Akkermansia co-occurred with partial protection against adiposity and inflammation in mice transplanted with fish oil microbiota and fed a lard diet highlighting Akkermansia as a potential mediator of the improved inflammation and metabolic phenotype of mice fed fish oil. This finding is in agreement with previous findings linking Akkermansia muciniphilia with protection against DIO [20,24]. Serum from mice fed lard had increased capacity to activate TLR4, which has been linked to WAT inflammation and metabolic perturbations [10,14,25]. Further they found that mice deficient in either of 2 TLR adaptor molecules MyD88 and TRIF were protected from lard induced WAT inflammation and insulin sensitivity. These findings are consistent with earlier studies showing decreased inflammation in mouse models lacking functional MyD88 [26-29]. One report has shown that MyD88 (Myeloid Differentiation factor 88) protects against glucose homeostasis perturbations and liver diseases during high fat diet . Inconsistencies in report on the role of MyD88 is due to environmental factors at various animal facilities e.g., the presence of segmented filamentous bacteria which are enriched in MyD88-/- mice and have a major impact on host immunity differ between animal facilities [31-33]. Importantly the TRIF deficient mice in their study had the same body weight and adipocyte size as the wild type mice showing protection against WAT inflammation was not dependent on reduced adiposity. TLR signaling can be activated by both microbial and endogenous ligands and some investigators have suggested that saturated FA’s promote inflammation and IR in obesity through TLR4 . The gut microbiota modulates host lipid metabolism . Therefore protection against WAT inflammation in MyD88-/- and TRIF-/- mice fed lard might be due to reduced TLR signaling induced by ligands originating from the host or from the diet. Cesar et al., showed that serum levels of Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were higher in mice fed lard as compared to mice fed fish oil which indicated that microbial factors are present in the periphery which may directly affect WAT inflammation. However they could not exclude the possibility of other factors like saturated lipids could also directly contribute to the inflammatory response by activating TLR signaling . Further to determine the specific impact of the gut microbiota on lard induced WAT inflammation they compared the effect of lard and fish oil in CONV-R versus GF mice. GF mice were partly protected against lard induced WAT inflammation though the protection against obesity in GF mice was less than that observed in previous studies [9-12]. This is likely due to the reduced sucrose levels in the HFD‘s used in the present study. Sucrose levels have previously been shown to have a major impact on microbiota induced obesity . Thus they used this fact as they could utilize weight matched mice to try and interfere whether the microbiota modulated WAT inflammation by weight dependent or independent mechanisms. They observed an adiposity independent link between the gut microbiota and WAT inflammation which may complicate microbially derived products as mediators of inflammation through TLR’s. Yet they also showed that GF mice fed lard had increased WAT inflammation compared to GF mice fed fish oil, indicating that microbiota independent mechanisms contribute to accumulation of immune cells in WAT. Previous studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota derived factors can induce inflammation and TNFα expression in WAT and they showed that serum from lard fed CONV-R mice compared with GF mice had an increased capacity to induce expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNFα) in both adipocytes and macrophages . CCL2 is the only chemokine which has been shown to mediate inflammation in a WAT specific knockout model and TLR ligand have been shown to induce secretion of CCL2 from 3T3L1 adipocytes [38,39]. Here they found that that CCL2 expression in primary adipocytes and WAT was induced by microbial factors in serum and required the presence of MyD88, TRIF and TLR4. Over expression of CCL2 in adipocytes has been shown to result in WAT inflammation and IR without obesity, and mice deficient in CCL2 or its receptor chemokine (C+C motif) receptor2 (CCR2) have reduced WAT inflammation and IR [40,41]. Also a recent study reported that CCL2 promotes local proliferation of macrophages in WAT . By using the specific pharmacological CCL2 inhibitor MnOx E3 they demonstrated that CCL2 is essential for WAT macrophage accumulation in their model and therefore constitutes putative mediator of gut microbiota induced WAT inflammation [43-45]. In addition they found that GF mice fed lard or fish oil had similar expression levels of CCL2 in WAT, suggesting that microbiota independent WAT inflammation is not mediated through CCL2. Taken together their data showed that interaction between gut microbiota and dietary lipids induces WAT inflammation. They also identified putative mechanisms including role of cell signaling components and regulation of chemokine expression. Thus this study establishes the gut microbiota as an independent factor aggravating inflammation during DIO and therefore a suitable target for therapies against associated metabolic perturbations .
Role of gut immune system
It is now accepted that both obesity and T2D are associated with low grade inflammation and that AT appears to be the first organ which is affected . The development of inflammation and oxidative stress in AT leads to hepatic lipogenic expression and reduced liver fat export may also leads to obesity development [48,49].
Role of Herbal Therapy
In this study carried out by Shao et al., a HFD mouse model where development of obesity and insulin sensitivity was relatively slow due to the administration of 45% rather than 60% of calories from fat . In this mouse model as well as in primary rat adipocytes they did not observe stimulation of curcumin on Wnt pathway components or Wnt target gene expression. But curcumin attenuated lipogenic gene expression in hepatocytes and blocked the effect of HFD on the inflammatory response in the AT associated with decreased weight/fat gain and the maintenance of normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Thus they concluded that beneficial effects of curcumin during HFD consumption is mediated by attenuating lipogenic gene expression in the liver and the inflammatory response in AT, in the absence of Wnt signaling in mature adipocytes .
Recapitulating the Control of Energy Homeostasis
Hypothalamic Inflammation (HI)
• Those affecting leptin receptor signal transduction
• At innumerable points downstream or in parallel to leptin mediated effects e.g., obesity secondary to Mc 4R mutation, the most common monogenic form of human obesity is characterized by leptin resistance, since leptin action on energy balance needs that it activate the melanocortin pathway . The term leptin resistance is misused here because a blunted feeding response to leptin is present in practically all forms of obesity, except for that caused by leptin deficiency . Hence it has become difficult to find the underlying mechanisms. Despite this problem the role of leptin resistance in obesity pathogenesis along with hypothalamic inflammation underlie this resistance. Following strong evidence that inflammatory signaling leads to obesity associated insulin resistance in peripheral tissues like liver, muscle and adipose tissue, this hypothesis was proposed . Neuronal consequences of proinflammatory signaling is a disruption of intracellular signal transduction downstream of both insulin and leptin receptors via the insulin receptor substrate-phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase pathway .
• Cellular inflammation can affect the leptin signaling through janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway [68,69]. This suggests that the mechanism may add not only to obesity associated leptin and insulin resistance (LR&IR) but also to the associated increase in the defended level of body fat stores. Still it is difficult to differentiate cause and effect and evidence of leptin resistance caused by inflammation independent of obesity is lacking through studies of ageing, injury and endotoxin induced leptin resistance which suggests this possibility [65,66,68].
Another mechanism by which HI is linked to IR and LR is via up regulation of Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling 3 (SOCS3), which is a member of protein family originally characterized as negative feedback regulators of inflammation [68,70]. SOCS3 inhibits insulin and leptin signaling both by direct binding to their cognate receptors and targeting IRS proteins for proteasomal degradation [68,70]. HF feeding increases SOCS3 expression specifically within the ARC nucleus of hypothalamus coincident with the onset of LR selectively in this brain area . The mechanism underlying increased SOCS3 expression during HFD is uncertain as it can be induced via either leptin-JAK/STAT or IKKβ/NF?B pathways.
Conversely, both SOCS3 haploin sufficiency and neuron specific SOCS3 deletion protect mice from DIO by increasing leptin sensitivity, while over expression of SOCS3 in POMC neurons (directly or by increasing STAT3 activation) results in hyperphagia and obesity on a chow diet [72-75]. Linking SOCS3 to inflammation, HFD resistant neuronal IKKβ knockout mice show greatly decreased SOCS3 expression in the hypothalamus, while misexpression of SOCS3 in the MBH abolishes protection from HFD induced obesity in AgRP neuron specific IKKβ knockout animals . More experiments are needed to identify mechanisms underlying the hypothalamus specific increase of SOCS3 expression seen during HFD feeding and if HFD induced weight gain caused by augmenting HI needs functional SOCS3 signaling .
Like SOCS3, the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTB)-1B is a signal terminal molecule which inhibits both leptin and insulin signaling. The mechanism underlying these effects involves its ability to dephosphorylate the insulin receptor JAK2 and more distal components of both pathways and available data suggest HF feeding increases PTB-1B expression in several tissues including the hypothalamus [77,78]. That this effect gets recapitulated by systemic TNFα administration suggests the functional interactions exist between inflammatory signaling and PTB-1B activation . Pan-neuronal, POMC neuron specific PTB1B knockout mice are resistant to DIO due to enhanced hypothalamic leptin and insulin sensitivity, but how this response might be related to alter hypothalamic inflammatory signaling needs further studies . Since both pan-neuronal PTB1B knockout mice and rats with hypothalamic PTB1B knockout show equivalent reductions of food intake whether fed chow or HFD, this protein may favor weight gain via mechanisms in addition to those involving hypothalamic inflammation [79,80] (Figure 2).
Thaler et al., proposes a hypothesis that a vicious cycle exists involving obesity and leptin resistance and inflammation. Diet induced increases of inflammation get a state of leptin resistance which promotes weight gain which in turn triggers further inflammation and leptin resistance ultimately leads to biological defense of an increased level of body functions. This perspective highlights the challenges inherent in determining the extent of which leptin resistance and inflammation are causes or consequences of weight gain, a challenge not possible to be met with use of methods which distinguish cellular response to diet from metabolic alterations induced by obesity itself .
HYPOTHALAMUS AND INSULIN RESISTANCE (IR)
Also there is interaction of the hypothalamus with the liver via signaling through the vagus nerve . This explains why inhibiting TNFα or TLR4 signaling in the hypothalamus also decreases glucose production in the liver. This implies that the central regulation of appetite control by hypothalamus is a very complex interaction of the levels of inflammation and nutrient intake generated by the diet and sensing of those levels by the hypothalamus.
HYPOTHALAMIC INFLAMMATION (HI) AND OBESITY
With DIO, metabolites like diacyl glycerol and ceramide accumulate in hypothalamus causing leptin and insulin resistance in CNS [97,98]. Part of this effect is mediated by saturated FA’s which activate neuronal JNK & NF?B signaling pathway which direct effects in leptin and insulin signaling. Disruption of signaling through TLR4, MyD88, IKKβ/NF?B/ER stress pathway in neurons protects mice from DIO and its downstream metabolic effects [75,99,100].
Thus brain inflammation has various influences on the peripheral tissue function. HI can affect insulin release from β cells as well as have an impact on peripheral insulin action and accentuate hypertension independent of obesity [101-103]. So many of these are a result of SNS signals which by themselves can also induce inflammatory changes in AT inflammation responses to neuronal injury . What is still not clear is how inflammatory signals in the brain develop responses that create negative energy balance (anorexia) while simultaneously on the other hand can result in positive energy balance (weight gain) .
The marked interplay between HI and obesity suggest additional targets for anti-inflammatory treatment in obesity. That anti-inflammatory pathways might help to counterbalance CNS inflammation events and improve leptin sensitivity is what one infers from this observation. One that IL6 and IL10 are involved in exercise induced suppression of hyperphagia and suppresses IKKβ/NF?B and ER stress in the brain . Second that the IKKβ/NF?B inhibitor sodium salicylate can also prevent ceramide getting deposited in hypothalamus with lipid infusion .
CERAMIDES AND INTRACELLULAR LIPIDS IN INFLAMMATION/METABOLISM
HYPOTHALAMIC GLIOSES AND NEURON INJURY
A more complex picture suggested by other studies regarding role of microglia and astrocytes in limiting the deleterious hypothalamic effects as a result of HFD consumption. Mice with moderately increased production of IL6 from astrocytes were protected from DIO, rather than being more susceptible . Also adult rats overfed during the neonatal period manifest hypothalamic microglia activation (as evidenced by major histocompatibility complex class II expression) without local inflammation and hypothalamic microglia from mice fed an HFD accumulate the general anti-inflammatory molecule IgG [118,119]. Further work of Thaler et al., showed that effects of short term HFD feeding on hypothalamic inflammation and reactive glioses are separable from one another . Although when both processes were seen within the first week of HFD consumption, hypothalamic inflammation subsided over the next 2 weeks despite accumulation of enlarged microglia in the ARC which continue unabated.
Despite definite answers are not there these results are consistent with the model in which glioses develops initially as a neuro protective response to cope with neuronal stress induced by HFD feeding. In this scenario, glial responses initially constrain hypothalamic inflammatory signaling. With prolonged exposure to an HFD, however astrocytes and microglia may eventually convert to a more proinflammatory, neurotoxic phenotype (Figure 3).
A growing literature in rodent models suggests that obesity is associated with inflammation of an injury to hypothalamic areas critical to the control of energy balance and glucose imbalance [113,119-122]. Histologically this response is characterized by gliosis, the proliferation and activation of glial cells induced by response to CNS injury. Microscopically gliosis means infiltration of microglia and astrocytes and astrocytic proliferation including increased density of astrocyte processes on the cell bodies on neurons.
Feeding rodents a HFD triggers inflammation and gliosis in the arcuate nucleus located in the Mediobasal Hypothalamus (MBH), even before obesity occurs and eventually reduces proopiomelanocortin cell number [113,121]. Such changes are associated with both obesity and impaired glucose homeostasis in rodents and they offer an explanation for obesity associated resistance of hypothalamic neurons in humoral signals like leptin and insulin [122-126]. Even though evidence exists from animal studies, significance of this hypothalamic glioses in humans had largely been unknown  (Figure 3).
A core concept of current research is that glioses can be detected in humans using MRI by assessing for increased signal brightness on a T2 weighted image [127-129]. Clinically the visual identification of increased T2 signal intensity is used to detect CNS insults like stroke and multiple sclerosis but quantitative techniques can detect more subtle alterations in CNS tissue characteristics [120, 127-129]. One prior retrospective study on humans utilized clinical MRI examination and found a positive association between BMI and ratio on T2 signal in the MBH as compared to the amygdale . Thus Schur et al., in recent studies utilized a quantitative MRI technique to measure T2 relaxation time in the MBH, employing a dedicated sequence not typically utilized in clinical imaging protocols. Using a similar sequence they found longer MBH T2 relaxation times in DIO mice compared to chow fed controls [120,130]. Thus using 2 separate studies they sought evidence for MBH gliosis in human studies. In study 1 an in vivo MRI study it was hypothesized that MBH gliosis when present would be associated with obesity and insulin resistance. In study 2, a postmortem study of human brain tissue hypothesized that T2 relaxation time would be related to immunohistochemical measures of astrocytes in the MBH.
Schur et al., examined 67 patients who underwent a fasting blood draw and MRI, Cases with radiologic evidence of MBH gliosis [n=22] were identified as the upper tertile of left MBH T2 relaxation time and were compared to controls [n=23] from the lowest tertile. Besides a separate postmortem study brain slices [n =10] through the MBH was imaged by MRI and stained for Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP). In all participants longer T2 relaxation time in the left MBH was associated with higher BMI (P=0.01). As compared to control, cases had longer T2 relaxation times in the right MBH (P<0.05) as well as higher BMI (P<0.05), fasting insulin concentrations (p<0.01) and HOMA IR values (p<0.01) adjusted for sex and age. Elevations in insulin HOMA IR were also independent of BMI. In the postmortem study GFAP staining intensity was positively associated with MBH T2 relaxation time (p<0.05) validating an MRI based method for the detection of MBH gliosis in humans. Hence they concluded that these findings links hypothalamic gliosis to insulin resistance in humans and suggests that the link is independent of the level of adiposity .
ASTROCYTES AND HYPOTHALAMIC GLIOSES
The group of Thaler et al., developed a mouse model with an inducible astrocytic specific deletion of IKKβ with the use of tamoxifen. With this approach they showed that decreasing the astrocytic signaling protects mice from HFD induced hypothalamic inflammation and decreases susceptibility to DIO and glucose tolerance. The results highlight the importance of non neuronal cells in obesity pathogenesis and suggest the possibility of newer target for therapy .
Further in both rodent models and humans now there is evidence that hypothalamic inflammation precedes the development of obesity, there is possibility that neuronal damage occurs with directly Ag RP and POMC neurons getting damaged by circulating HFD. Evidence is there that this neuronal injury triggers activation of local glial cells populations. This neuronal injury and reactive gliosis in turn may impair homeostatic control of body fat stores leads to increased body weight. Thus pharmacological targeting therapies at this level needs to be done to protect against obesity.
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Citation:Kaur KK, Allahbadia G, Singh M (2018) Current Advances in Pathogenesis in Obesity: Impact of Hypothalamic Glioses. J Obes Weight Loss 3: 008.
Copyright: © 2018 Kulvinder Kochar Kaur, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.