Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Category: Medical Type: Research Article
Visceral Adiposity: A Major Predictor in Diabetes and Hypertension
- Saera Suhail Kidwai1*, Farhat Bashir1, Ayesha Nageen1, Syed Muhammad Munir1, Jamal Ara1
- 1 Department Of Medicine, United Medical And Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author:Saera Suhail Kidwai
Department Of Medicine, United Medical And Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan
Received Date: Feb 27, 2017 Accepted Date: Apr 07, 2017 Published Date: Apr 22, 2017
Study design: Cross sectional analytic study
Place and duration of study: Study setting is a tertiary care hospital located in the suburbs of Karachi Pakistan catering a population of low income strata, the study was conducted for a duration of 6 months from Oct 2015 till March 2016.
Materials and Methods: A total of 229 adults aged 41.58±12.47 years were recruited with informed consent from the suburbs of Karachi. Male (n=81): female (n=148) ratio is 1:2. Blood Pressure (BP) and WC are measured using standard equipments. Body Mass Index (BMI) is categorized as normal: 18.5-22.9 overweight: 23-24.9 and obese ≥25. Waist Circumference (WC) is considered high if ≥80 cms in females and ≥90 cms in males which is in accordance with South Asian Modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria (SAM-NCEP) criteria. Total Body Fat (TBF), Total Visceral Fat percentage (TVF) and BMI were measured by OMRON BF508. SPSS version 16 is used for all calculations P value was taken as significant with a P<0.05
Result: Means and standard deviations for all variables including age, body mass index, waist circumference, Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total body fat and total visceral fat were calculated. BMI, WC, Systolic BP and TVF proved significance with P<0.05. Linear regression analysis was used with total visceral fat percentage as dependent variable and BMI, age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference and total body fat as independent variables. All the variables except total body fat proved significance with Systolic BP and WC being the highest determinant (P<0.05). Mean of TVF in males is found 9.53% and in females 9.26%, mean of TVF in Diabetic cohort is 10.9% whereas in non diabetics 8.7%. Similarly, in hypertensive TVF is 10.7% and in non hypertensive 8.6 %. TBF has not shown any significance in hypertensive, diabetic and even in obese individuals (P value>.05).
Conclusion: Significant correlation is found between TVF and systolic BP and WC in this study. Higher values of TVF is observed diabetic and hypertensive individuals. Contrary to the general concept males have shown an equally higher percentage of visceral fat than females in our cohort. Therefore, central obesity should be aggressively managed in order to lower the risk of diabetes and hypertension in both genders.
In this study we aim to determine the relationship of anthropometric measures WC and BMI with visceral fat in both males and females and also compare them in diabetic and non diabetic, hypertensive and non hypertensive cohorts. To our knowledge in recent years no published data is available from this geographical location as regard the comparison of demographic measurements with visceral fat percentage with which we can compare similar international statistic. The genotypical and phenotypical variation is too significant in the Asians when compared with Europeans or Americans which justifies the importance of this study not only to compare and document the statistics but also to emphasize the importance of life style modifications which are necessary to avoid the much anticipated cardiovascular morbitity and mortality in high risk individuals.
Blood Pressure (BP) and Waist Circumference (WC) are measured using standard equipments. Total Body Fat (TBF), Total Visceral Fat Percentage (TVF) and Body Mass Index (BMI) were measured by OMRON BF508. Body Mass Index (BMI) is categorized as normal 18.5-22.9 overweight 23-24.9 and obese ≥25. Waist circumference (WC) is considered high if ≥80cms in females and ≥90 cms in males which is in accordance with South Asian Modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria (SAM-NCEP) criteria .
Subjects were considered hypertensive if their blood pressure ≥140 systolic or ≥90 diastolic in non diabetics and ≥135 systolic and ≥85 diastolic in diabetics. Subjects were considered diabetic if they were already on medication or their fasting blood sugar was ≥126 mg/dl or random blood sugar ≥ 200 mg/dl or Hb A1c ≥ 6% . All the variables that is age, gender, duration of disease, BMI, WC, total body fat, visceral fat, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were quantified and means with standard deviation calculated. Effects of total visceral fat on these variables were measured using linear regression module. The statistical data is analyzed using SPSS version 16 with a P value of <0.05 taken as significant.
SPSS version 16 is used for all calculations with a P value (P<0.05) taken as significant. Frequency of diabetes in the cohort is 27.5% (n=63) and hypertension is 34.5% (n=79). The data on means of all variables showed a significance of P< 0.05 in age, BMI, WC, systolic BP and TVF amongst males and females. Linear regression analysis is used with total visceral fat percentage as dependent variable and BMI, age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference and total body fat as independent variables which showed high significance (P<0.05) for all variables except for total body fat (Table 2).
We have compared all the variable behaviors in groups of diabetic and non diabetic and hypertensive and non hypertensive population tables 3 and 4. The diabetic and hypertensive subjects proved to be significantly associated with a higher age, BMI, systolic BP, WC and TVF (P<0.00), which suggest that either the higher values of age, BMI, WC and TVF are responsible for DM and HTN or vice versa, further prospective Randomized Controlled Trials are required to prove the cause and effect relationship between these variables.
Means of age, BMI, WC, systolic and diastolic BP and TBF is compared in the normal and high visceral fat category in table 5 which has proved significance in all the variables except TBF (P<0.05).
|<9||9 and above||Total||Sig.|
When comparing the means of BMI, WC and TVF in a younger age group (20-29yrs ) it has shown a significantly lower mean values (<0.05) than 40yrs and above which proves the higher the age the more the BMI, WC, TVF and systolic BP (Table 6).
|20 to 29yrs||30 to 39yrs||40 to 49 yrs||50 and above||Sig.|
Mean of TVF in males is found 9.53% and in females 9.26%, mean of TVF in Diabetic cohort is 10.9% whereas in non diabetics 8.7%. Similarly, in hypertensive TVF is 10.7% and in non hypertensive 8.6 %.
Relationship of total visceral fat and WC is represented in figure 1 which shows a direct relationship between both the variables increasing proportionately along each other.
Asian population when compared with subjects of other ethnic origin is observed to have more adipose visceral tissue deposition at lower BMI values in several studies. This may be the reason why Asians are susceptible to develop Type 2 Diabetes mellitus at a lower BMI value than whites . However to further strengthen this hypothesis extensive imaging of body fat distribution is needed specifically in a cohort of different ethnicities to define the high risk abdominal obesity on a global scale.
In our study, age has shown high significance with the visceral adiposity as most of the individuals with a visceral fat value of >9% falls in the age group of (45.8±11.19), thus the higher the age the more the chances of developing central obesity. Similarly, higher BMI had higher visceral adiposity. There was a wide range of distribution of subjects in the obese category from 9 to 17% also explains why all the subjects have not developed the complications of visceral fat deposition, as the subjects having values of VF% just above normal levels are less likely to develop diabetes or hypertension.
Another important observation is that only 30% of the total subjects have a visceral fat % of > 9 which is considered abnormal for Asian population, consequently, 22% of the total sample has diastolic hypertension and 15% of the sample had systolic hypertension and nearly all of them belong to the high visceral fat group. In table 4 when significance testing was applied on the measures comparing hypertensive and non hypertension subjects, all the variables showed a high significance P<0.00. Interestingly, total body fat has not shown any significance with the visceral fat percentage a finding that was predicted in several studies but still not anticipated. This observation confirms the finding of previous studies negating the predictability of total body fat for hypertension .
The study is also evident for the fact that almost all the subjects who had systolic and diastolic hypertension had a WC of 106.13+ 11.53 and belong to higher VF group (>9%). The means of total body fat content of the same groups with or without diabetes and hypertension is 36.57±11.97. On the contrary, means of TVF in diabetes (10.95±4.57) is significantly higher than non diabetics (8.75±4.45), similar is the case with Hypertension where means of TVF in Htn (10.71±4.39) is significantly higher than non Htn (8.64±4.52). This finding further seconds the theory that it is not the total body fat that determines the metabolic profile and predicts diabetes mellitus and hypertension instead visceral adiposity has proven to be the major determinant .
Our study further endorses that the higher age groups i.e., >40yrs are more prone to have a higher BMI, WC, TVF and systolic BP or in other words more visceral adiposity and obesity resulting in poor control on blood pressure as well as more likely to become diabetic.
WC has proved to be strongly associated with visceral fat with a value of P <0.05 in our study and therefore, justifies its importance for its consideration as a single and most feasible anthropometric measure that identifies the metabolic risk of an individual. However, the limitation remains that it cannot differentiate between the visceral and subcutaneous fat. Secondly, the sample size of diabetics is just satisfactory as it is a cross sectional study.
WC has proven to have the closest relationship with the measure of visceral adipose tissue and studies suggest that visceral adipose tissue may be particularly sensitive to the metabolic risks in Asians. Our finding is endorsed by a study recently done which compared different obesity indices to predict incident hypertension, it included Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI), Hyper Tri Glyceridemic-Waist (HTGW) phenotype, A Body Shape Index (ABSI), Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) and Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR). WHR, WHtR and WC were more strongly associated with the development of HTN .
A number of mechanisms may be implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity-related hypertension which includes secretion of Leptin from adipocytes which stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, activation of renin angiotensin and aldosterone system, decrease in natriuretic peptide and in salt excretion, all of which contribute to hypertension. In addition, in several research studies “hypertriglyceridemic waist” is recommended as a clinically effective marker for identifying the risk of prediabetes and diabetes in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients .
Li Xu in his study done in China also proved that along with the strong association of visceral fat and WC, an increase in glucose metabolic risk factors fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, a decreasing HDL and increasing TG trend is observed in abdominally obese individuals . Finelli et al in his study stresses the need to reduce visceral fat as a treatment strategy to delay age related diseases and thus increase longevity, he suggested a strategy in which the intake levels should be titrated on the current weight of the individual, activity levels and weight loss goals . The prediction that diabetes incidence will double by 2025 indicates a parallel rise in cardiovascular-related illness and death, with an inevitable and profound impact on global healthcare systems. This was stated in the year 2015 in a consensus workshop by IDF .
Pakistan is expected to attain 5th position in the year 2025 among the countries who have most prevalent diabetic population according to IDF and every 4th individual will be harboring this multi systemic disease which is very alarming . It is and further will be disastrous on this developing country, the best strategy therefore is primary prevention by life style modification.
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Citation:Kidwai SS, Bashir F, Nageen A, Munir SM, Ara J (2017) Visceral Adiposity: A Major Predictor in Diabetes and Hypertension. J Obes Weight Loss 2: 007.
Copyright: © 2017 Saera Suhail Kidwai, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.