Journal of Dentistry Oral Health & Cosmesis Category: Medical Type: Case Report
Carcinoma of Tongue and Oropharynx
- Vijayendranath Nayak1*, Raghavendra Kini2, Prasanna Kumar Rao2, Roopashri Rajesh Kashyap2, Gowri Bhandarkar2, Ujwala Shetty2
- 1 Department Of Oral Medicine And Radiology, Viveka Dental Clinic, Mangaluru, Bangalore, India
- 2 Department Of Oral Medicine And Radiology, AJ Institute Of Dental Sciences, Mangaluru, Bangalore, India
*Corresponding Author:Vijayendranath Nayak
Department Of Oral Medicine And Radiology, Viveka Dental Clinic, Mangaluru, Bangalore, India
Received Date: Jun 04, 2019 Accepted Date: Aug 07, 2019 Published Date: Aug 14, 2019
Factors affecting that promote oral cancer includes, tobacco, diet , nutrition, viruses, radiation, alcohol,familial and geneticpredisposition,candidiasis,immunosuppression, syphilis, dental factors, andoccupational risks. The above reported case, patient gave only history of alcohol consumption. Alcoholic beverages have been considered carcinogenic to humans causing in, tumors of the oral cavity along with tumors of GIT which include pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and liver; although ethanol has not been proven carcinogenic in animal studies, yet it is considered to be a factor. The role of alcohol as an independent factor in oral carcinogenesis is still unclear but the epidemiological evidence establishes the synergistic role played by alcohol along with tobacco. Alcohol increases the permeability of oral mucosaby producing an alteration in morphology of epithelium which is characterized by epithelial atrophy, which in turn leads to easier penetration of carcinogens into the oral mucosa.
Management of oral cancer can be done in many ways with prolonging the life of patients with minimum discomfort. Among the approaches to the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma affecting the tongue includes surgery, radiation therapy like external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy, coadjutant therapy with the use of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, carboplatin, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel and docetaxel[8,9].
Clinical and radiological assessment plays a major role in assessment of the primary tumor and areas of lymphatic drainage often understage disease in comparison with pathological assessment. Tumor control depends on two major factors, the extent and location of primary tumors along with the status of the neck lymph nodes which is the most important prognostic factor . A higher risk of contralateral metastasis in patients with tumors of the floor of the mouth and the anterior third of the tongue compared to the retromolar region has been reported.In relation to tongue carcinomas, the importance of primary tumor invasion across the midline has already been stated. According to Martin, et al., 16% of the tumors crossing the midline by less than 1 cm developed contralateral lymph node relapse, and this valueconsiderably increases to 46% in cases that invade over the midline by more than 1 cm due to the involvement of contralateral lymphatic drainage .
There is good amount of research papers published which can help us in understanding the causes to prevent a third of all cancers in the world and with this sufficient information to enable early detection and well-timed treatment of another third of cases. Until today, there is no specific biomarkers for oral cancer, yet few latest studieshave showed that elevated levels of interleukin-8 and SAT can categorize between patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and healthy patients, with high sensitivity and specificity. Research should be carried for specific biomarkers for the disease so that defining the susceptibility field for etiological factors and their interaction.
- McQuarrie DG (1986) Cancer of the tongue: Selecting appropriate therapy. CurrProblSurg23:561-653.
- Warnakulasuriya S (2009) Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral Oncol45: 309-316.
- Ramirez-Amador V, Esquivel-Pedraza L, Ochoa-Carrillo FJ , Cuapio-Ortiz A , Frias-Mendivil M, et al. (1995) Cancer of the Mobile Tongue in Mexico: A Retrospective Study of 170 Patients. Eur J Cancer B Oral Oncol. 31:37-40.
- Lockhart PB, Norris CM (1998) Pulliam C Dental factors in the genesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Oral Oncol 34:133-139.
- Kumar M, NanavatiR, Modi TG, Dobariya C (2016)Oral cancer: Etiology and risk factors: A review.J Cancer Res Ther12:458-463.
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (1985) IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks to humans: Tobacco habits other than smoking; betel- quid and areca-nut chewing; and some areca-nut-derived nitrosamines. IARC 37: 188.
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (2002) IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. IARC 83.
- Huang SH, O’Sullivan B (2013) Oral cancer: Current role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 18: 33-240.
- Rivera C (2015)The challenge of the state of susceptibility to oral cancer. J Oral Res 4: 8-9.
- Kumar M, Umashankar DN, Sharma R, Girish G (2011)Carcinoma of Anterior Two Third of the Tongue: A Case Report. Int J Oral MaxillofacPathol 2:55-58.
- González-García R, Naval-Gías L, Sastre-Pérez J, Rodríguez-Campo FJ, Muñoz-Guerra MF, at al. (2007) Contralateral lymph neck node metastasis of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: a retrospective analytic study of 203 patients.Int J Oral MaxillofacSurg 36:507-513.
- Petersen PE (2009) Oral cancer prevention and control-the approach of the World Health Organization. Oral Oncol. 45: 454-460.
- Elashoff D, Zhou H, Reiss J, Wang J, Xiao H, et al. (2012) Prevalidation of salivary biomarkers for oral cancer detection. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev21: 664-672.
Citation: Nayak V, Kini R, Rao PK, Kashyap RR, Bhandarkar G, et al. (2019) Carcinoma of Tongue and Oropharynx. J Dent Oral Health Cosmesis 4: 011.
Copyright: © 2019 Vijayendranath Nayak, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.